Thyroid Disease Types and Treatments

Thyroid Disease Types and Treatments

Medical Author:

Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD

Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler’s educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.

Doctor’s View on Thyroid Disease Types and Treatments

Comment by Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD

A number of different treatments are given for
thyroid disease, depending
upon the type of disease that is present. Both medical and surgical treatment
options can be used in the treatment of thyroid diseases.


Surgery is the typical treatment of choice for thyroid cancers. It can also
be used in the unusual case of large goiters that cause symptoms by pressing on
adjacent organs and structures. Surgery may be done to remove all or part of the
thyroid gland. If you have had thyroid surgery you may need to begin taking
thyroid hormone medications to avoid hypothyroidism.


Thyroid replacement hormones taken in pill form are an effective treatment
if you have an underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism). The synthetic hormone levothyroxine (Synthroid, Levoxyl) is taken daily.

If you have an overactive thyroid,
medications that block production of thyroid hormones (antithyroid drugs such as
methimazole (Tapazole) and propylthiouracil (PTU) can be prescribed. One major risk
and side effect of antithyroid medications is the occasional development of
suppression of bone marrow production of white blood cells. A one-time dose of
radioactive iodine can also be administered to ablate an overactive thyroid
gland. This treatment is safe except during pregnancy and breastfeeding, and is a
common way to manage recurrent Graves’ disease and some other conditions.

some cases, permanent hypothyroidism can result from ablation of the gland with
radioactive iodine.

Finally, medications that help control the symptoms of
hyperthyroidism are sometimes prescribed (such as beta-blockers), but these do not
treat the underlying thyroid condition.

Read what others are saying about types of thyroid disease and treatments.

Thyroid Disease Types and Treatments Resources

Doctor written main article on Thyroid Disease

REFERENCE: Thyroid disease fact sheet.

Last Editorial Review: 7/29/2013 4:36:01 PM

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