leaves, fruits and bud of Corchorus olitorius ….lá, trái non và nụ hoa rau Đay trái dài…

Some cool Diabetes symptoms images:

leaves, fruits and bud of Corchorus olitorius ….lá, trái non và nụ hoa rau Đay trái dài…
Diabetes symptoms

Image by Vietnam Plants & The USA. plants
Vietnamese named : Đay trái dài.
English names : Bangla Tossa Jute (India), Bush Okra, Jew´s Mallow, Jew´s-Mallow, Jew’s Mallow, Jute, Long-Fruited Jute, Nalita Jute, Nalta Jute, Red Jute, Tossa Jute, West African Sorrel

Scientist name : Corchorus olitorius L.
Synonyms :
Family : Tiliaceae. Họ Đay ( Họ Cò Ke )

Searched from :

**** TRUNG TÂM DỮ LIỆU THỰC VẬT VIETNAM
www.botanyvn.com/cnt.asp?param=news&newsid=1128

Sợi vỏ thân cây đay có đặc tính hút ẩm mạnh, là nguyên liệu tốt để dệt bao đay, vải đay, dây đay. Dùng hàng dệt bằng đay để đóng gói hàng hóa, có ưu điểm phòng ẩm, khô ráo, nếu dùng để đựng lương thực, muối, đường, xi măng… đều rất thích hợp. Còn như mái nhà kho, tường viện bảo tàng, thư viện được trang trí bằng vải đay sẽ có tác dụng phòng ẩm. Vải đay cho thêm dầu lanh, chế tạo thành vải dầu, là thứ không thể thiếu được trên tàu thuyền. Sợi đay dễ nhuộm, thường dùng để dệt vải bạt, thảm trải sàn nhà, đồng thời có thể dệt hỗn hợp với bông, len thành vải vóc may mặc. Hạt đay chưa 14% dầu, có thể làm dầu dùng trong công nghiệp và y dược. Rễ đay, vụn đay có thể dùng làm nguyên liệu sản xuất giấy. Lá đay non có thể dùng làm rau ăn. Lá già ngâm trong ruộng nước vừa có thể làm cho đất tốt hơn, vừa có thể phòng trừ sâu hại.

**** WIKI TIẾNG VIỆT
vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chi_Đay

Sử dụng

[sửa]Lấy sợi
Xem bài chính Sợi đay
Các loài trong chi Corchorus thỏa mãn một lượng lớn nhu cầu của thế giới về sợi. Sợi từ các loài đay là sợi thực vật phổ biến hàng thứ hai sau sợi bông.
[sửa]Thực phẩm
Lá non của một vài loài đay cũng được sử dụng làm rau ăn; đay quả dài (Corchorus olitorius) được sử dụng chủ yếu tại miền nam châu Á, Ai Cập và Cyprus, đay quả tròn (Corchorus capsularis) tại Nhật Bản và Trung Quốc. Chúng có kết cấu nhầy (nhớt), tương tự như ở đậu bắp, khi nấu ăn. Hạt được sử dụng làm hương liệu, và một loại trà thảo mộc được sản xuất từ lá đay khô. Rau đay cũng được sử dụng tại Ai Cập; một số người còn cho rằng nó là món ăn quốc gia trong ẩm thực Ai Cập. Nó cũng là món ăn đặc trưng trong ẩm thực Lebanon, Palestine, Syria và Jordan. Một món ăn điển hình của khu vực này là rau đay hầm ăn cùng cơm và thịt gà luộc. Tại Việt Nam, rau đay chủ yếu dùng nấu canh (với cua, tôm tép), đôi khi với mồng tơi hoặc mướp.
Tháng 9 năm 2007, Sizzler’s, một chuỗi nhà hàng Mỹ, bán Molokhiya cookies (bánh bích quy ngọt) với rau đay là thành phần đặc trưng, tại khu vực Shinjuku ở Tokyo, Nhật Bản.
Lá đay giàu betacaroten, sắt, canxi, vitamin C. Các loài đay có tính hoạt hóa chống ôxi hóa với một lượng đáng kể tương đương α-tocopherol (vitamin E).

**** TUETINHLIENHOA.COM
tuetinhlienhoa.com.vn/cms/article/duochoc/vanh/1091/

- Cân phân biệt với cây rau Đay quả dài (Corchorus olitorius Linn) thuộc họ Tiliaceae. Đó là cây thảo cứng, cao độ 1-2m. Thân màu đỏ nâu ít phân nhánh. Lá hình bầu dục nhọn, tù hay tròn ở gốc, có gân ở trên các gân mặt dưới lá, sau nhẵn, mép khía răng đều đặn, răng nhọn, hai răng ở gốc lá thường kéo dài thành hai lông dài 3-5 gân gốc, lá kèm hình dãi dài mảnh, cuống lá mảnh. Hoa nhỏ màu vàng mọc ở kẽ lá. Quả nang dài, hình trụ, có 6 sống dọc. Hạt hình quả lê. Cây ra hoa quanh năm chủ yếu có hoa vào mùa thu và quả vào mùa đông. Cây được trồng để lấy sợi làm bao tải. Kinh nghiệm dân gian lấy ngọn non dùng tươi hoặc thu hái hạt phơi khô. Khi dùng để giải nhiệt hoặc lợi sữa hoặc nhuận trường, lấy chừng 100-200gr ngọn non nấu ăn hàng ngày. Còn chữa hen suyễn, dùng 10-20gr hạt khô sao vàng sắc uống với xơ mướp lúc còn nóng ngày 2 lần.

**** VHO.VN. : THUỐC TRỢ TIM
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Cây đay có hai loài đều là cây trồng: Đay quả dài (Corchorus olitorius L.), tên khác là rau đay, đay tía, đay tây, đay rừng, người Tày gọi là phjăc slênh, được dùng làm rau ăn và làm thuốc. Đay quả tròn (Corchorus capsularis L.), tên khác là đay trắng, đay lụa, đay ta, người Thái gọi là co dệt, chỉ cho sợi để dệt bao túi.

Lá đay quả dài chứa Ca 498mg%, P 93mg%, Fe 3,8mg%, K 650mg%, acid oxalic 870mg%, vitamin B1 0,24mg%, vitamin B2 0,76mg%, vitamin C 168mg%, vitamin A 7.940 đơn vị, vitamin E 141. Hạt đay quả dài có nhiều glycosid khác nhau, nhưng chủ yếu là corchorosid và olitorisid.

Về mặt thuốc, lá đay quả dài (rau đay) 30-50g, nấu canh ăn có tác dụng tăng tiết sữa. Sau khi đẻ, tuần đầu tiên, phụ nữ ăn canh rau đay đều đặn trong bữa cơm hằng ngày. Những tuần sau, mỗi tuần ăn hai lần. Rau đay 100g phối hợp với rau mồng tơi 50g, khoai sọ 2 củ, rửa sạch, thái nhỏ, nấu ăn trong ngày là thuốc mát, nhuận tràng chữa táo bón. Dùng 2-3 ngày. Đễ chữa rắn cắn, nhân dân thường dùng ngọn rau đay với nõn chuối tiêu, dây kim cang, giã nhỏ, thêm nước, gạn uống, bã đắp.

Hạt thu hái từ quả đay già, phơi hoặc sấy khô. Khi dùng, để sống hoặc sao qua. Tuệ Tĩnh (Nam dược thần hiệu) đã dùng hạt đay quả dài thay vị đình lịch vì có tác dụng lợi tiểu mạnh chữa bệnh cổ trướng, phối hợp với các vị thuốc khác trong bài thuốc sau:

Hạt đay quả dài 12g, sao; vỏ rễ dâu 24g, tẩm mật sao; trần bì lâu năm 12g; gừng sống 3 lát. Tất cả thái nhỏ, sắc với 400ml nước còn 100ml, uống làm hai lần trong ngày.

Theo kinh nghiệm dân gian, hạt đay quả dài 12g, giã nát, sao; xơ mướp 20g, băm nhỏ, sao. Hai thứ trộn đều, sắc uống làm hai lần trong ngày, chữa hen suyễn. Để chữa tràn dịch màng phổi, lấy hạt đay quả dài 8g; ý dĩ 16g; tỳ giải, mộc thông, huyền sâm, thổ phục linh, bách bộ, mỗi vị 12g; hạt bìm bìm biếc, rễ cỏ tranh, hạt mã đề, mỗi vị 8g. Sắc uống ngày một thang.

Những năm gần đây, các nhà khoa học đã nghiên cứu tác dụng dược lý của chất olitorisid và thấy có hoạt tính trợ tim cao, làm tăng sức co cơ tim và giảm nhịp tim gần giống hoạt tính sinh học của strophantin (hoạt chất đặc hiệu với bệnh tim của cây sừng dê). Olitorisid đã được đưa vào một hỗn hợp ổn định có tác dụng trên tim và được đặt tên là Daicosid. Từ đó, thuốc được bào chế dưới dạng viên 1mg và thuốc tiêm 0,33mg dùng để trợ tim với hiệu quả điều trị cao.

Theo tài liệu nước ngoài, lá đay quả dài được dùng làm thuốc bổ, an thần, lợi tiểu. Hạt là thuốc tẩy chữa táo bón.

Tác giả: DS. Đỗ Huy Bích
Nguồn: Báo sức khỏe & Đời sống Online ngày 8/8/2007

_______________________________________________________

**** HORT PURDUE.EDU
www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Corchorus_olitori…

Corchorus olitorius L.
Tiliaceae
Nalta jute, Tussa jute
Source: James A. Due. 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops. unpublished

Uses

While perhaps better known as a fiber crop, jute is also a medicinal "vegetable", eaten from Tanganyika to Egypt. Dried leaves were given me by an Egyptian friend who had brought them with him to this country. They are used in soups under the Arabic name "Molukhyia." In India the leaves and tender shoots are eaten. The dried material is there known as "nalita." Injections of olitoriside markedly improve cardiac insufficiencies and have no cumulative attributes; hence, it can serve as a substitute for strophanthin.
Folk Medicine

Reported to be demulcent, deobstruent, diuretic, lactagogue, purgative, and tonic, tussa jute is a folk remedy for aches and pains, dysentery, enteritis, fever, dysentery, pectoral pains, and tumors (Duke and Wain, 1981; List and Horhammer, 1969-1979). Ayurvedics use the leaves for ascites, pain, piles, and tumors. Elsewhere the leaves are used for cystitis, dysuria, fever, and gonorrhea. The cold infusion is said to restore the appetite and strength.
Chemistry

Per 100 g, the leaves are reported to contain 43-58 calories, 80.4-84.1 g H2O, 4.5-5.6 g protein, 0.3 g fat, 7.6-12.4 g total carbohydrate, 1.7-2.0 g fiber, 2.4 g ash, 266-366 mg Ca, 97-122 mg P, 7.2-7.7 mg Fe, 12 mg Na, 444 mg K, 6,410-7,850 ug beta-carotene equivalent, 0.13-0.15 mg thiamine, 0.26- 0.53 mg riboflavin, 1.1-1.2 mg niacin, and 53-80 mg ascorbic acid. Leaves contain oxydase and chlorogenic acid. The folic acid content is substantially higher than that of other folacin-rich vegetables, ca 800 micrograins per 100 g (ca 75% moisture) or ca 3200 micrograms on a zero moisture basis (Chen and Saad, 1981). The seeds contain 11.3-14.8% oil (Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk, 1962), reportedly estrogenic (Sharaf et al, 1979), which contains 16.9% palmitic-, 3.7% stearic-, 1.8% behenic-, 1.1% lignoceiic-, 9.1% oleic-, 62.5% linoleic-, and 0.9% linolenic- acids as well as large portions of B, Mn, Mo, and Zn.
Toxicity

Contains HCN and several cardiac glycosides. Negm et al (1980) report the LD50 of tissue extracts to mice. The "lethal dose" of Corchoroside A to cats is 0.053-0.0768 mg/kg and Corchoroside B 0.059-0.1413, but some authors say that Corchoroside A is twice as active as Corchoroside B.
Description

Annual, much-branched herb 90-120 cm tall; stems glabrous. Leaves 6-10 cm long, 3.5-5 cm broad, elliptic-lanceolate, apically acute or acuminate, glabrous, serrate, the lower serratures on each side prolonged into a filiform appendage over 6 mm long, rounded at the base, 3-5 nerved; petioles 2-2.5 cm long, slightly pubescent, especially towards the apex; atipules subulate, 6-10 mm long. Flowers pale yellow; bracts lanceolate; peduncle shorter than the petiole; pedicles 1-3, very short. Sepals ca 3 mm long, oblong, apiculate. Petals 5 mm long, oblong spathulate. Style short; stigma microscopically papillose. Capsules 3-6.5 cm long, linear, cylindric erect, beaked, glabrous, 10-ribbed, 5-valved; valves with transverse partitions between the seeds. Seeds trigonous, black (Kirtikar and Basu, 1975).
Germplasm

Reported from the African, Hindustani, and China-Japan Centers of Diversity, tussa jute, or cvs thereof, is reported to tolerate disease, fungi, high pH, laterite, limestone, and salt (Duke, 1978). Several cvs are discussed in the Annual Reports of the Jute Agricultural Research Institute (ICAR, 1973, 1975). (2n = 14, 28)
Distribution

Rather pantropical in distribution, perhaps more often a weed than a cultivar. Considered a serious weed in Australia, Egypt, Mozambique, the Philippines, Senegal, and Thailand, a principal weed in the Sudan, and a common weed in Afghanistan, India, Kenya, Nepal, Turkey, and Zambia (Holm et al, 1979). Systematic attempts have been made to grow jute in West Africa, Sudan, Egypt, Turkey, Iran, Thailand, Java, Paraguay, Brazil, Argentina, and Mexico.
Ecology

Ranging from Warm Temperate Thorn through Tropical Desert to Wet Forest Life Zones, tussa jute is reported to tolerate annual precipitation of 4.0 to 42.9 dm (mean of 15 cases = 18), annual temperature of 16.8 to 27.5°C (mean of 15 cases = 23.8), and pH of 4.5 to 8.2 (mean of 13 cases = 6.5). (Duke, 1978, 1979)
Cultivation

In India, seeds are sown in (Feb.-) Mar-May (June) in carefully prepared soil, plowed and cross plowed 5 or 6 times, clay soils requiring more plowing. Cow dung and wood ashes are applied as manure. Rotted water hyacinth or its ashes may also be applied. Seeds are broadcast or dribbled behind the plow. When soils are moist, seeds may germinate in 2-3 days. If germination is bad, replowing and resowing is recommended. Starting at 8-25 cm tall, the seedlings are harrowed with a rake 3 to 4 times, and weeded 2 to 3 times. After the final weeding, plants are spaced at 10-15 by 15 cm. Highest yields were obtained (ca 3000 kg/ha) with 80 kg/N compared to 1700 per ha in unfertilized controls.
Harvesting

In India, usually harvested Aug-Sept, when ca 50% of the plants are in pods, but earlier if floods threaten. Plants are cut close to the ground with sickles. Cut plants are tied into bundles, left to dry 2-4 days and shed their leaves. The jute is retted usually in stagnant water. After retting, the bundles are beat on the root end with a mallet to start the fibers which are wrapped around the fingers and the stems are jerked back and forth in the water to separate the fibers.
Yields and Economics

Fiber yields run ca 800-1600 kg/ha with exceptional cases of 2400 in India, and genetic potential of 4000 kg/ha, the fiber representing ca 6% of the green weight. Intercropped with Vigna, jute has yielded 3270 kg compared to 2290 monocropped. Rice yielded 5650 kg/ha following the intercropping and, potatoes yielded 13,600 kg/ha following the rice (ICAR, 1973). Seed yields run 200-350 kg/ha, usually lower in C. olitorus than in capsularis.
Energy

Assuming the fiber yields are 6% of green weight, annual green weight productivity ranges from 13 to 42 MT/ha, with genetic potential of 67 MT. Assuming 80% moisture, this translates to 2.6-13.4 MT DM. ICAR (1973) reports DM yields of ca 10 MT near Barrackpore corresponding roughly to an uptake of 75 kg N, 4 5 kg P2O5, 120 kg K2O, 115 kg CaO, and 35 kg MgO.
Biotic Factors

Anthracnose spots caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides may infect 50-90% of a jute population, but spraying with copper oxychloride at 0.5% strength checked the spread, holding it to 5-10% (ICAR, 1973). Thangavel et al (1974) found that this species was badly infested by 3 species of weevils (Myllocerus spp.) while C. capsularis was unaffected. The semilooper Anomis sabulifera may stunt the growth, reducing fiber yields by ca 13-32%. The yellow mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus may also reduce yields.

**** SARAHMELAMED
www.sarahmelamed.com/2010/07/the-incredible-journey-of-co…

The Incredible Journey of Corchorus Olitorius
by SARAH on JULY 4, 2010
Deep in tropical Africa families ate a nutritious and filling stew from a plant known today as ewedu. Little would they know that this would be the last connection with their homeland before slave traders shipped them away as prized commodities. The slaves carried with them the tiny seeds of Corchorus Olitorius, a plant that sustained them for centuries and would continue to do so in their Diaspora. Along the human chattel lines this modest flower flourished, perhaps symbolizing how African societies could have thrived if they were left alone. The depredation of Africa continued across the continent as the slave trade broadened its ugly hold. Indigenous societies were being destroyed before they had a chance to fully develop and for many this plant was the last vestige of a culture which would all but disappear.
From the Jungles of Africa to Egypt’s National Dish

Mloukhia as it is known in Egypt has grown there for so long it has become a quintessential Egyptian green. What started as a plant introduced by slaves became the preferred food of the highest echelons of society and it is said even the Pharaoh himself. As the pendulum swings, in modern times it is again the simple food of peasant farmers and is considered by many Egypt’s national dish.

Interestingly, during the reign of the mad Fatimid Caliph, al-Hakim Bi-Amr Allah, Mloukhia became illegal along with a long list of other prohibitions. It was treated much like cocaine or marihuana and anyone caught with this contraband would be harshly punished. This is ironic considering how nutritious Mloukhia is, high in vitamin C and B, beta-carotene, magnesium and iron. It is also beneficial in controlling symptoms of diabetes and high cholesterol.

From Africa and Beyond

With trade, migration and exploration Mloukhia found its way across the globe and became an important agricultural product in India and adjacent countries. Unlike Egypt it was not grown as an edible plant but to produce burlap, a fabric made from jute fibers of C. Olitorius. It adapted incredibly well to the hot climate of Asia and became an important economic crop. Since the introduction of nylon and polypropylene, burlap lost a large share of the market. However, renewed interest in biodegradable fibers for such uses as erosion control has once again increased international sales of this product.

Mloukhia and the Western Palate

It is considered a much loved dish in many parts of the world including the Levant, Philippines and even Japan, where they use it for medicinal tea. Jews of Sephardic heritage are also very fond of mloukhia as the name Jew’s mallow indicates. In the United States, and other western nations, mlouhkia is unknown except within certain communities.

It’s mucilaginous texture, highly prized by some, is often disliked by those who have never encountered it before. It is described in terms that are not common in cookery books and better fitted to the medical lexicon.

Coming from the United States, I tasted Mloukhia for the first time several years ago and it did not disappoint. It was more viscous than I ever thought possible in a vegetable. Research has indicated that the plant component producing the texture may have uses as a food additive much the same way guar gum is used today.

Mloukhia is an important local crop in Africa, the Middle East and a few Asian countries and should not be replaced by introduced species. It continues to be grown or harvested in many areas of Africa where it is easily grown without the need for intensive agricultural intervention. Its high nutritional profile and ease of growth makes it an ideal plant to grow in its indigenous area or climates compatible to it. Sustainable agriculture is based on using local plants for preserving not only the ecology but the culture tied with it.

In addition, there are areas where this plant grows abundantly in the wild but neglected as an edible crop. In these cases, education may help to increase food sources with a minimum of effort and finance.

Mloukhia is an acquired taste which I have not yet achieved. The traditional way of preparing it is as a soup or cooked together with lamb. Here is another way inspired by Cafe Liz’s sweet potato and mloukhia ravioli. I used egg pasta consisting of 3 cups duram bread flour and 2 cups fine semolina flour. The filling consisted of a mixture of cooked mloukhia that had been squeezed dried of moisture mixed with feta and kashkaval cheese. I made a simple olive oil sauce with garlic, chili pepper and crushed coriander. The result did not mask the texture of the mloukhia. As I am extremely impatient with picky eaters who are reluctant to try new things, it annoys me to no end that I have not been able to overcome the mloukhia hurdle.

*** PFAF.ORG
www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Corchorus%20olitorius

ANNUAL/PERENNIAL growing to 3.5 m (11ft 6in) at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone 10. It is in flower from Aug to October, and the seeds ripen in October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils.The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. and can grow in very alkaline soils.
It cannot grow in the shade.It requires moist soil.

Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Leaves; Seed.

Leaves – raw or cooked[1, 27, 46, 61]. Young leaves are added to salads whilst older leaves are cooked as a pot-herb[2, 183, 269]. High in protein[183]. The dried leaves can be used as a thickener in soups[183]. A tea is made from the dried leaves[183]. Immature fruits are added to salads or used as a potherb[183].

Demulcent; Diuretic; Febrifuge; Tonic.

The leaves are demulcent, diuretic, febrifuge and tonic[240]. They are used in the treatment of chronic cystitis, gonorrhoea and dysuria[240]. A cold infusion is said to restore the appetite and strength[269]. The seeds are purgative[240]. Injections of olitoriside, an extract from the plant, markedly improve cardiac insufficiencies and have no cumulative attributes; hence, it can serve as a substitute for strophanthin[269].
Other Uses
Fibre; Wood.

A fibre is obtained from the stems, it is the main source of jute[46, 61, 200] but is considered to be inferior to the fibre obtained from C. capsularis[61]. The fibre is somewhat coarse and is used mainly for sackcloth etc[57]. The stems are harvested when the plant is in flower and are then retted (allowed to begin to rot) so that the fibre can be extracted[171]. This species tends to branch making fibre extraction more difficult[114]. Growing the plants very close together will prevent some of the branching. If used in making paper, the fibres are cooked for 2 hours with lye and then ball milled for 4½ hours. The paper is grey/buff[189]. Fibre yields run ca 800-1600 kg/ha with exceptional cases of 2400 in India, and genetic potential of 4000 kg/ha, the fibre representing ca 6% of the green weight[269]. Intercropped with Vigna, jute has yielded 3270 kg compared to 2290 monocropped[269]. The very light and soft wood is used in making sulphur matches[158].
Cultivation details
Prefers a very fertile soil and a hot humid climate[169]. Tolerates very wet conditions according to one report[57] whilst another says that it does not tolerate waterlogged soils[169]. Jute is reported to tolerate an annual precipitation between 40 and 429m,an annual average temperature range of 16.8 to 27.5°C and a pH in the range of 4.5 to 8.2[269]. Jute is sometimes cultivated for the fibre in its stem and also for its edible leaves[183]. It makes an excellent spinach substitute in areas with hot summers[183]. This species is not hardy in Britain but it can be grown as a half-hardy annual here, though it grows much better in areas that are warmer than typical summers in this country[27]. Some reports say that this plant is an annual whilst one says that it is perennial. Since the plant is not hardy in Britain we can only grow it as an annual. This species is very closely related to C. capsularis

Propagation
Seed – sow spring in a greenhouse. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in late spring, after the last expected frosts[200]. In areas with hot summers it should be possible to sow the seed in situ in mid spring.

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Bud of flower of Corchorus olitorius ….Nụ hoa rau Đay trái dài…
Diabetes symptoms

Image by Vietnam Plants & The USA. plants
Vietnamese named : Đay trái dài.
English names : Bangla Tossa Jute (India), Bush Okra, Jew´s Mallow, Jew´s-Mallow, Jew’s Mallow, Jute, Long-Fruited Jute, Nalita Jute, Nalta Jute, Red Jute, Tossa Jute, West African Sorrel

Scientist name : Corchorus olitorius L.
Synonyms :
Family : Tiliaceae. Họ Đay ( Họ Cò Ke )

Searched from :

**** TRUNG TÂM DỮ LIỆU THỰC VẬT VIETNAM
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Sợi vỏ thân cây đay có đặc tính hút ẩm mạnh, là nguyên liệu tốt để dệt bao đay, vải đay, dây đay. Dùng hàng dệt bằng đay để đóng gói hàng hóa, có ưu điểm phòng ẩm, khô ráo, nếu dùng để đựng lương thực, muối, đường, xi măng… đều rất thích hợp. Còn như mái nhà kho, tường viện bảo tàng, thư viện được trang trí bằng vải đay sẽ có tác dụng phòng ẩm. Vải đay cho thêm dầu lanh, chế tạo thành vải dầu, là thứ không thể thiếu được trên tàu thuyền. Sợi đay dễ nhuộm, thường dùng để dệt vải bạt, thảm trải sàn nhà, đồng thời có thể dệt hỗn hợp với bông, len thành vải vóc may mặc. Hạt đay chưa 14% dầu, có thể làm dầu dùng trong công nghiệp và y dược. Rễ đay, vụn đay có thể dùng làm nguyên liệu sản xuất giấy. Lá đay non có thể dùng làm rau ăn. Lá già ngâm trong ruộng nước vừa có thể làm cho đất tốt hơn, vừa có thể phòng trừ sâu hại.

**** WIKI TIẾNG VIỆT
vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chi_Đay

Sử dụng

[sửa]Lấy sợi
Xem bài chính Sợi đay
Các loài trong chi Corchorus thỏa mãn một lượng lớn nhu cầu của thế giới về sợi. Sợi từ các loài đay là sợi thực vật phổ biến hàng thứ hai sau sợi bông.
[sửa]Thực phẩm
Lá non của một vài loài đay cũng được sử dụng làm rau ăn; đay quả dài (Corchorus olitorius) được sử dụng chủ yếu tại miền nam châu Á, Ai Cập và Cyprus, đay quả tròn (Corchorus capsularis) tại Nhật Bản và Trung Quốc. Chúng có kết cấu nhầy (nhớt), tương tự như ở đậu bắp, khi nấu ăn. Hạt được sử dụng làm hương liệu, và một loại trà thảo mộc được sản xuất từ lá đay khô. Rau đay cũng được sử dụng tại Ai Cập; một số người còn cho rằng nó là món ăn quốc gia trong ẩm thực Ai Cập. Nó cũng là món ăn đặc trưng trong ẩm thực Lebanon, Palestine, Syria và Jordan. Một món ăn điển hình của khu vực này là rau đay hầm ăn cùng cơm và thịt gà luộc. Tại Việt Nam, rau đay chủ yếu dùng nấu canh (với cua, tôm tép), đôi khi với mồng tơi hoặc mướp.
Tháng 9 năm 2007, Sizzler’s, một chuỗi nhà hàng Mỹ, bán Molokhiya cookies (bánh bích quy ngọt) với rau đay là thành phần đặc trưng, tại khu vực Shinjuku ở Tokyo, Nhật Bản.
Lá đay giàu betacaroten, sắt, canxi, vitamin C. Các loài đay có tính hoạt hóa chống ôxi hóa với một lượng đáng kể tương đương α-tocopherol (vitamin E).

**** TUETINHLIENHOA.COM
tuetinhlienhoa.com.vn/cms/article/duochoc/vanh/1091/

- Cân phân biệt với cây rau Đay quả dài (Corchorus olitorius Linn) thuộc họ Tiliaceae. Đó là cây thảo cứng, cao độ 1-2m. Thân màu đỏ nâu ít phân nhánh. Lá hình bầu dục nhọn, tù hay tròn ở gốc, có gân ở trên các gân mặt dưới lá, sau nhẵn, mép khía răng đều đặn, răng nhọn, hai răng ở gốc lá thường kéo dài thành hai lông dài 3-5 gân gốc, lá kèm hình dãi dài mảnh, cuống lá mảnh. Hoa nhỏ màu vàng mọc ở kẽ lá. Quả nang dài, hình trụ, có 6 sống dọc. Hạt hình quả lê. Cây ra hoa quanh năm chủ yếu có hoa vào mùa thu và quả vào mùa đông. Cây được trồng để lấy sợi làm bao tải. Kinh nghiệm dân gian lấy ngọn non dùng tươi hoặc thu hái hạt phơi khô. Khi dùng để giải nhiệt hoặc lợi sữa hoặc nhuận trường, lấy chừng 100-200gr ngọn non nấu ăn hàng ngày. Còn chữa hen suyễn, dùng 10-20gr hạt khô sao vàng sắc uống với xơ mướp lúc còn nóng ngày 2 lần.

**** VHO.VN. : THUỐC TRỢ TIM
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Cây đay có hai loài đều là cây trồng: Đay quả dài (Corchorus olitorius L.), tên khác là rau đay, đay tía, đay tây, đay rừng, người Tày gọi là phjăc slênh, được dùng làm rau ăn và làm thuốc. Đay quả tròn (Corchorus capsularis L.), tên khác là đay trắng, đay lụa, đay ta, người Thái gọi là co dệt, chỉ cho sợi để dệt bao túi.

Lá đay quả dài chứa Ca 498mg%, P 93mg%, Fe 3,8mg%, K 650mg%, acid oxalic 870mg%, vitamin B1 0,24mg%, vitamin B2 0,76mg%, vitamin C 168mg%, vitamin A 7.940 đơn vị, vitamin E 141. Hạt đay quả dài có nhiều glycosid khác nhau, nhưng chủ yếu là corchorosid và olitorisid.

Về mặt thuốc, lá đay quả dài (rau đay) 30-50g, nấu canh ăn có tác dụng tăng tiết sữa. Sau khi đẻ, tuần đầu tiên, phụ nữ ăn canh rau đay đều đặn trong bữa cơm hằng ngày. Những tuần sau, mỗi tuần ăn hai lần. Rau đay 100g phối hợp với rau mồng tơi 50g, khoai sọ 2 củ, rửa sạch, thái nhỏ, nấu ăn trong ngày là thuốc mát, nhuận tràng chữa táo bón. Dùng 2-3 ngày. Đễ chữa rắn cắn, nhân dân thường dùng ngọn rau đay với nõn chuối tiêu, dây kim cang, giã nhỏ, thêm nước, gạn uống, bã đắp.

Hạt thu hái từ quả đay già, phơi hoặc sấy khô. Khi dùng, để sống hoặc sao qua. Tuệ Tĩnh (Nam dược thần hiệu) đã dùng hạt đay quả dài thay vị đình lịch vì có tác dụng lợi tiểu mạnh chữa bệnh cổ trướng, phối hợp với các vị thuốc khác trong bài thuốc sau:

Hạt đay quả dài 12g, sao; vỏ rễ dâu 24g, tẩm mật sao; trần bì lâu năm 12g; gừng sống 3 lát. Tất cả thái nhỏ, sắc với 400ml nước còn 100ml, uống làm hai lần trong ngày.

Theo kinh nghiệm dân gian, hạt đay quả dài 12g, giã nát, sao; xơ mướp 20g, băm nhỏ, sao. Hai thứ trộn đều, sắc uống làm hai lần trong ngày, chữa hen suyễn. Để chữa tràn dịch màng phổi, lấy hạt đay quả dài 8g; ý dĩ 16g; tỳ giải, mộc thông, huyền sâm, thổ phục linh, bách bộ, mỗi vị 12g; hạt bìm bìm biếc, rễ cỏ tranh, hạt mã đề, mỗi vị 8g. Sắc uống ngày một thang.

Những năm gần đây, các nhà khoa học đã nghiên cứu tác dụng dược lý của chất olitorisid và thấy có hoạt tính trợ tim cao, làm tăng sức co cơ tim và giảm nhịp tim gần giống hoạt tính sinh học của strophantin (hoạt chất đặc hiệu với bệnh tim của cây sừng dê). Olitorisid đã được đưa vào một hỗn hợp ổn định có tác dụng trên tim và được đặt tên là Daicosid. Từ đó, thuốc được bào chế dưới dạng viên 1mg và thuốc tiêm 0,33mg dùng để trợ tim với hiệu quả điều trị cao.

Theo tài liệu nước ngoài, lá đay quả dài được dùng làm thuốc bổ, an thần, lợi tiểu. Hạt là thuốc tẩy chữa táo bón.

Tác giả: DS. Đỗ Huy Bích
Nguồn: Báo sức khỏe & Đời sống Online ngày 8/8/2007

_______________________________________________________

**** HORT PURDUE.EDU
www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Corchorus_olitori…

Corchorus olitorius L.
Tiliaceae
Nalta jute, Tussa jute
Source: James A. Due. 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops. unpublished

Uses

While perhaps better known as a fiber crop, jute is also a medicinal "vegetable", eaten from Tanganyika to Egypt. Dried leaves were given me by an Egyptian friend who had brought them with him to this country. They are used in soups under the Arabic name "Molukhyia." In India the leaves and tender shoots are eaten. The dried material is there known as "nalita." Injections of olitoriside markedly improve cardiac insufficiencies and have no cumulative attributes; hence, it can serve as a substitute for strophanthin.
Folk Medicine

Reported to be demulcent, deobstruent, diuretic, lactagogue, purgative, and tonic, tussa jute is a folk remedy for aches and pains, dysentery, enteritis, fever, dysentery, pectoral pains, and tumors (Duke and Wain, 1981; List and Horhammer, 1969-1979). Ayurvedics use the leaves for ascites, pain, piles, and tumors. Elsewhere the leaves are used for cystitis, dysuria, fever, and gonorrhea. The cold infusion is said to restore the appetite and strength.
Chemistry

Per 100 g, the leaves are reported to contain 43-58 calories, 80.4-84.1 g H2O, 4.5-5.6 g protein, 0.3 g fat, 7.6-12.4 g total carbohydrate, 1.7-2.0 g fiber, 2.4 g ash, 266-366 mg Ca, 97-122 mg P, 7.2-7.7 mg Fe, 12 mg Na, 444 mg K, 6,410-7,850 ug beta-carotene equivalent, 0.13-0.15 mg thiamine, 0.26- 0.53 mg riboflavin, 1.1-1.2 mg niacin, and 53-80 mg ascorbic acid. Leaves contain oxydase and chlorogenic acid. The folic acid content is substantially higher than that of other folacin-rich vegetables, ca 800 micrograins per 100 g (ca 75% moisture) or ca 3200 micrograms on a zero moisture basis (Chen and Saad, 1981). The seeds contain 11.3-14.8% oil (Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk, 1962), reportedly estrogenic (Sharaf et al, 1979), which contains 16.9% palmitic-, 3.7% stearic-, 1.8% behenic-, 1.1% lignoceiic-, 9.1% oleic-, 62.5% linoleic-, and 0.9% linolenic- acids as well as large portions of B, Mn, Mo, and Zn.
Toxicity

Contains HCN and several cardiac glycosides. Negm et al (1980) report the LD50 of tissue extracts to mice. The "lethal dose" of Corchoroside A to cats is 0.053-0.0768 mg/kg and Corchoroside B 0.059-0.1413, but some authors say that Corchoroside A is twice as active as Corchoroside B.
Description

Annual, much-branched herb 90-120 cm tall; stems glabrous. Leaves 6-10 cm long, 3.5-5 cm broad, elliptic-lanceolate, apically acute or acuminate, glabrous, serrate, the lower serratures on each side prolonged into a filiform appendage over 6 mm long, rounded at the base, 3-5 nerved; petioles 2-2.5 cm long, slightly pubescent, especially towards the apex; atipules subulate, 6-10 mm long. Flowers pale yellow; bracts lanceolate; peduncle shorter than the petiole; pedicles 1-3, very short. Sepals ca 3 mm long, oblong, apiculate. Petals 5 mm long, oblong spathulate. Style short; stigma microscopically papillose. Capsules 3-6.5 cm long, linear, cylindric erect, beaked, glabrous, 10-ribbed, 5-valved; valves with transverse partitions between the seeds. Seeds trigonous, black (Kirtikar and Basu, 1975).
Germplasm

Reported from the African, Hindustani, and China-Japan Centers of Diversity, tussa jute, or cvs thereof, is reported to tolerate disease, fungi, high pH, laterite, limestone, and salt (Duke, 1978). Several cvs are discussed in the Annual Reports of the Jute Agricultural Research Institute (ICAR, 1973, 1975). (2n = 14, 28)
Distribution

Rather pantropical in distribution, perhaps more often a weed than a cultivar. Considered a serious weed in Australia, Egypt, Mozambique, the Philippines, Senegal, and Thailand, a principal weed in the Sudan, and a common weed in Afghanistan, India, Kenya, Nepal, Turkey, and Zambia (Holm et al, 1979). Systematic attempts have been made to grow jute in West Africa, Sudan, Egypt, Turkey, Iran, Thailand, Java, Paraguay, Brazil, Argentina, and Mexico.
Ecology

Ranging from Warm Temperate Thorn through Tropical Desert to Wet Forest Life Zones, tussa jute is reported to tolerate annual precipitation of 4.0 to 42.9 dm (mean of 15 cases = 18), annual temperature of 16.8 to 27.5°C (mean of 15 cases = 23.8), and pH of 4.5 to 8.2 (mean of 13 cases = 6.5). (Duke, 1978, 1979)
Cultivation

In India, seeds are sown in (Feb.-) Mar-May (June) in carefully prepared soil, plowed and cross plowed 5 or 6 times, clay soils requiring more plowing. Cow dung and wood ashes are applied as manure. Rotted water hyacinth or its ashes may also be applied. Seeds are broadcast or dribbled behind the plow. When soils are moist, seeds may germinate in 2-3 days. If germination is bad, replowing and resowing is recommended. Starting at 8-25 cm tall, the seedlings are harrowed with a rake 3 to 4 times, and weeded 2 to 3 times. After the final weeding, plants are spaced at 10-15 by 15 cm. Highest yields were obtained (ca 3000 kg/ha) with 80 kg/N compared to 1700 per ha in unfertilized controls.
Harvesting

In India, usually harvested Aug-Sept, when ca 50% of the plants are in pods, but earlier if floods threaten. Plants are cut close to the ground with sickles. Cut plants are tied into bundles, left to dry 2-4 days and shed their leaves. The jute is retted usually in stagnant water. After retting, the bundles are beat on the root end with a mallet to start the fibers which are wrapped around the fingers and the stems are jerked back and forth in the water to separate the fibers.
Yields and Economics

Fiber yields run ca 800-1600 kg/ha with exceptional cases of 2400 in India, and genetic potential of 4000 kg/ha, the fiber representing ca 6% of the green weight. Intercropped with Vigna, jute has yielded 3270 kg compared to 2290 monocropped. Rice yielded 5650 kg/ha following the intercropping and, potatoes yielded 13,600 kg/ha following the rice (ICAR, 1973). Seed yields run 200-350 kg/ha, usually lower in C. olitorus than in capsularis.
Energy

Assuming the fiber yields are 6% of green weight, annual green weight productivity ranges from 13 to 42 MT/ha, with genetic potential of 67 MT. Assuming 80% moisture, this translates to 2.6-13.4 MT DM. ICAR (1973) reports DM yields of ca 10 MT near Barrackpore corresponding roughly to an uptake of 75 kg N, 4 5 kg P2O5, 120 kg K2O, 115 kg CaO, and 35 kg MgO.
Biotic Factors

Anthracnose spots caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides may infect 50-90% of a jute population, but spraying with copper oxychloride at 0.5% strength checked the spread, holding it to 5-10% (ICAR, 1973). Thangavel et al (1974) found that this species was badly infested by 3 species of weevils (Myllocerus spp.) while C. capsularis was unaffected. The semilooper Anomis sabulifera may stunt the growth, reducing fiber yields by ca 13-32%. The yellow mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus may also reduce yields.

**** SARAHMELAMED
www.sarahmelamed.com/2010/07/the-incredible-journey-of-co…

The Incredible Journey of Corchorus Olitorius
by SARAH on JULY 4, 2010
Deep in tropical Africa families ate a nutritious and filling stew from a plant known today as ewedu. Little would they know that this would be the last connection with their homeland before slave traders shipped them away as prized commodities. The slaves carried with them the tiny seeds of Corchorus Olitorius, a plant that sustained them for centuries and would continue to do so in their Diaspora. Along the human chattel lines this modest flower flourished, perhaps symbolizing how African societies could have thrived if they were left alone. The depredation of Africa continued across the continent as the slave trade broadened its ugly hold. Indigenous societies were being destroyed before they had a chance to fully develop and for many this plant was the last vestige of a culture which would all but disappear.
From the Jungles of Africa to Egypt’s National Dish

Mloukhia as it is known in Egypt has grown there for so long it has become a quintessential Egyptian green. What started as a plant introduced by slaves became the preferred food of the highest echelons of society and it is said even the Pharaoh himself. As the pendulum swings, in modern times it is again the simple food of peasant farmers and is considered by many Egypt’s national dish.

Interestingly, during the reign of the mad Fatimid Caliph, al-Hakim Bi-Amr Allah, Mloukhia became illegal along with a long list of other prohibitions. It was treated much like cocaine or marihuana and anyone caught with this contraband would be harshly punished. This is ironic considering how nutritious Mloukhia is, high in vitamin C and B, beta-carotene, magnesium and iron. It is also beneficial in controlling symptoms of diabetes and high cholesterol.

From Africa and Beyond

With trade, migration and exploration Mloukhia found its way across the globe and became an important agricultural product in India and adjacent countries. Unlike Egypt it was not grown as an edible plant but to produce burlap, a fabric made from jute fibers of C. Olitorius. It adapted incredibly well to the hot climate of Asia and became an important economic crop. Since the introduction of nylon and polypropylene, burlap lost a large share of the market. However, renewed interest in biodegradable fibers for such uses as erosion control has once again increased international sales of this product.

Mloukhia and the Western Palate

It is considered a much loved dish in many parts of the world including the Levant, Philippines and even Japan, where they use it for medicinal tea. Jews of Sephardic heritage are also very fond of mloukhia as the name Jew’s mallow indicates. In the United States, and other western nations, mlouhkia is unknown except within certain communities.

It’s mucilaginous texture, highly prized by some, is often disliked by those who have never encountered it before. It is described in terms that are not common in cookery books and better fitted to the medical lexicon.

Coming from the United States, I tasted Mloukhia for the first time several years ago and it did not disappoint. It was more viscous than I ever thought possible in a vegetable. Research has indicated that the plant component producing the texture may have uses as a food additive much the same way guar gum is used today.

Mloukhia is an important local crop in Africa, the Middle East and a few Asian countries and should not be replaced by introduced species. It continues to be grown or harvested in many areas of Africa where it is easily grown without the need for intensive agricultural intervention. Its high nutritional profile and ease of growth makes it an ideal plant to grow in its indigenous area or climates compatible to it. Sustainable agriculture is based on using local plants for preserving not only the ecology but the culture tied with it.

In addition, there are areas where this plant grows abundantly in the wild but neglected as an edible crop. In these cases, education may help to increase food sources with a minimum of effort and finance.

Mloukhia is an acquired taste which I have not yet achieved. The traditional way of preparing it is as a soup or cooked together with lamb. Here is another way inspired by Cafe Liz’s sweet potato and mloukhia ravioli. I used egg pasta consisting of 3 cups duram bread flour and 2 cups fine semolina flour. The filling consisted of a mixture of cooked mloukhia that had been squeezed dried of moisture mixed with feta and kashkaval cheese. I made a simple olive oil sauce with garlic, chili pepper and crushed coriander. The result did not mask the texture of the mloukhia. As I am extremely impatient with picky eaters who are reluctant to try new things, it annoys me to no end that I have not been able to overcome the mloukhia hurdle.

*** PFAF.ORG
www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Corchorus%20olitorius

ANNUAL/PERENNIAL growing to 3.5 m (11ft 6in) at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone 10. It is in flower from Aug to October, and the seeds ripen in October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils.The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. and can grow in very alkaline soils.
It cannot grow in the shade.It requires moist soil.

Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Leaves; Seed.

Leaves – raw or cooked[1, 27, 46, 61]. Young leaves are added to salads whilst older leaves are cooked as a pot-herb[2, 183, 269]. High in protein[183]. The dried leaves can be used as a thickener in soups[183]. A tea is made from the dried leaves[183]. Immature fruits are added to salads or used as a potherb[183].

Demulcent; Diuretic; Febrifuge; Tonic.

The leaves are demulcent, diuretic, febrifuge and tonic[240]. They are used in the treatment of chronic cystitis, gonorrhoea and dysuria[240]. A cold infusion is said to restore the appetite and strength[269]. The seeds are purgative[240]. Injections of olitoriside, an extract from the plant, markedly improve cardiac insufficiencies and have no cumulative attributes; hence, it can serve as a substitute for strophanthin[269].
Other Uses
Fibre; Wood.

A fibre is obtained from the stems, it is the main source of jute[46, 61, 200] but is considered to be inferior to the fibre obtained from C. capsularis[61]. The fibre is somewhat coarse and is used mainly for sackcloth etc[57]. The stems are harvested when the plant is in flower and are then retted (allowed to begin to rot) so that the fibre can be extracted[171]. This species tends to branch making fibre extraction more difficult[114]. Growing the plants very close together will prevent some of the branching. If used in making paper, the fibres are cooked for 2 hours with lye and then ball milled for 4½ hours. The paper is grey/buff[189]. Fibre yields run ca 800-1600 kg/ha with exceptional cases of 2400 in India, and genetic potential of 4000 kg/ha, the fibre representing ca 6% of the green weight[269]. Intercropped with Vigna, jute has yielded 3270 kg compared to 2290 monocropped[269]. The very light and soft wood is used in making sulphur matches[158].
Cultivation details
Prefers a very fertile soil and a hot humid climate[169]. Tolerates very wet conditions according to one report[57] whilst another says that it does not tolerate waterlogged soils[169]. Jute is reported to tolerate an annual precipitation between 40 and 429m,an annual average temperature range of 16.8 to 27.5°C and a pH in the range of 4.5 to 8.2[269]. Jute is sometimes cultivated for the fibre in its stem and also for its edible leaves[183]. It makes an excellent spinach substitute in areas with hot summers[183]. This species is not hardy in Britain but it can be grown as a half-hardy annual here, though it grows much better in areas that are warmer than typical summers in this country[27]. Some reports say that this plant is an annual whilst one says that it is perennial. Since the plant is not hardy in Britain we can only grow it as an annual. This species is very closely related to C. capsularis

Propagation
Seed – sow spring in a greenhouse. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in late spring, after the last expected frosts[200]. In areas with hot summers it should be possible to sow the seed in situ in mid spring.

**** PHILIPPINE MEDICINE PLANTS
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Buds and flower of Corchorus olitorius … Nụ và hoa của cây rau Đay trái dài …
Diabetes symptoms

Image by Vietnam Plants & The USA. plants
Vietnamese named : Đay trái dài.
English names : Bangla Tossa Jute (India), Bush Okra, Jew´s Mallow, Jew´s-Mallow, Jew’s Mallow, Jute, Long-Fruited Jute, Nalita Jute, Nalta Jute, Red Jute, Tossa Jute, West African Sorrel

Scientist name : Corchorus olitorius L.
Synonyms :
Family : Tiliaceae. Họ Đay ( Họ Cò Ke )

Searched from :

**** TRUNG TÂM DỮ LIỆU THỰC VẬT VIETNAM
www.botanyvn.com/cnt.asp?param=news&newsid=1128

Sợi vỏ thân cây đay có đặc tính hút ẩm mạnh, là nguyên liệu tốt để dệt bao đay, vải đay, dây đay. Dùng hàng dệt bằng đay để đóng gói hàng hóa, có ưu điểm phòng ẩm, khô ráo, nếu dùng để đựng lương thực, muối, đường, xi măng… đều rất thích hợp. Còn như mái nhà kho, tường viện bảo tàng, thư viện được trang trí bằng vải đay sẽ có tác dụng phòng ẩm. Vải đay cho thêm dầu lanh, chế tạo thành vải dầu, là thứ không thể thiếu được trên tàu thuyền. Sợi đay dễ nhuộm, thường dùng để dệt vải bạt, thảm trải sàn nhà, đồng thời có thể dệt hỗn hợp với bông, len thành vải vóc may mặc. Hạt đay chưa 14% dầu, có thể làm dầu dùng trong công nghiệp và y dược. Rễ đay, vụn đay có thể dùng làm nguyên liệu sản xuất giấy. Lá đay non có thể dùng làm rau ăn. Lá già ngâm trong ruộng nước vừa có thể làm cho đất tốt hơn, vừa có thể phòng trừ sâu hại.

**** WIKI TIẾNG VIỆT
vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chi_Đay

Sử dụng

[sửa]Lấy sợi
Xem bài chính Sợi đay
Các loài trong chi Corchorus thỏa mãn một lượng lớn nhu cầu của thế giới về sợi. Sợi từ các loài đay là sợi thực vật phổ biến hàng thứ hai sau sợi bông.
[sửa]Thực phẩm
Lá non của một vài loài đay cũng được sử dụng làm rau ăn; đay quả dài (Corchorus olitorius) được sử dụng chủ yếu tại miền nam châu Á, Ai Cập và Cyprus, đay quả tròn (Corchorus capsularis) tại Nhật Bản và Trung Quốc. Chúng có kết cấu nhầy (nhớt), tương tự như ở đậu bắp, khi nấu ăn. Hạt được sử dụng làm hương liệu, và một loại trà thảo mộc được sản xuất từ lá đay khô. Rau đay cũng được sử dụng tại Ai Cập; một số người còn cho rằng nó là món ăn quốc gia trong ẩm thực Ai Cập. Nó cũng là món ăn đặc trưng trong ẩm thực Lebanon, Palestine, Syria và Jordan. Một món ăn điển hình của khu vực này là rau đay hầm ăn cùng cơm và thịt gà luộc. Tại Việt Nam, rau đay chủ yếu dùng nấu canh (với cua, tôm tép), đôi khi với mồng tơi hoặc mướp.
Tháng 9 năm 2007, Sizzler’s, một chuỗi nhà hàng Mỹ, bán Molokhiya cookies (bánh bích quy ngọt) với rau đay là thành phần đặc trưng, tại khu vực Shinjuku ở Tokyo, Nhật Bản.
Lá đay giàu betacaroten, sắt, canxi, vitamin C. Các loài đay có tính hoạt hóa chống ôxi hóa với một lượng đáng kể tương đương α-tocopherol (vitamin E).

**** TUETINHLIENHOA.COM
tuetinhlienhoa.com.vn/cms/article/duochoc/vanh/1091/

- Cân phân biệt với cây rau Đay quả dài (Corchorus olitorius Linn) thuộc họ Tiliaceae. Đó là cây thảo cứng, cao độ 1-2m. Thân màu đỏ nâu ít phân nhánh. Lá hình bầu dục nhọn, tù hay tròn ở gốc, có gân ở trên các gân mặt dưới lá, sau nhẵn, mép khía răng đều đặn, răng nhọn, hai răng ở gốc lá thường kéo dài thành hai lông dài 3-5 gân gốc, lá kèm hình dãi dài mảnh, cuống lá mảnh. Hoa nhỏ màu vàng mọc ở kẽ lá. Quả nang dài, hình trụ, có 6 sống dọc. Hạt hình quả lê. Cây ra hoa quanh năm chủ yếu có hoa vào mùa thu và quả vào mùa đông. Cây được trồng để lấy sợi làm bao tải. Kinh nghiệm dân gian lấy ngọn non dùng tươi hoặc thu hái hạt phơi khô. Khi dùng để giải nhiệt hoặc lợi sữa hoặc nhuận trường, lấy chừng 100-200gr ngọn non nấu ăn hàng ngày. Còn chữa hen suyễn, dùng 10-20gr hạt khô sao vàng sắc uống với xơ mướp lúc còn nóng ngày 2 lần.

**** VHO.VN. : THUỐC TRỢ TIM
www.vho.vn/search.php?ID=10560&keyword=Ho

Cây đay có hai loài đều là cây trồng: Đay quả dài (Corchorus olitorius L.), tên khác là rau đay, đay tía, đay tây, đay rừng, người Tày gọi là phjăc slênh, được dùng làm rau ăn và làm thuốc. Đay quả tròn (Corchorus capsularis L.), tên khác là đay trắng, đay lụa, đay ta, người Thái gọi là co dệt, chỉ cho sợi để dệt bao túi.

Lá đay quả dài chứa Ca 498mg%, P 93mg%, Fe 3,8mg%, K 650mg%, acid oxalic 870mg%, vitamin B1 0,24mg%, vitamin B2 0,76mg%, vitamin C 168mg%, vitamin A 7.940 đơn vị, vitamin E 141. Hạt đay quả dài có nhiều glycosid khác nhau, nhưng chủ yếu là corchorosid và olitorisid.

Về mặt thuốc, lá đay quả dài (rau đay) 30-50g, nấu canh ăn có tác dụng tăng tiết sữa. Sau khi đẻ, tuần đầu tiên, phụ nữ ăn canh rau đay đều đặn trong bữa cơm hằng ngày. Những tuần sau, mỗi tuần ăn hai lần. Rau đay 100g phối hợp với rau mồng tơi 50g, khoai sọ 2 củ, rửa sạch, thái nhỏ, nấu ăn trong ngày là thuốc mát, nhuận tràng chữa táo bón. Dùng 2-3 ngày. Đễ chữa rắn cắn, nhân dân thường dùng ngọn rau đay với nõn chuối tiêu, dây kim cang, giã nhỏ, thêm nước, gạn uống, bã đắp.

Hạt thu hái từ quả đay già, phơi hoặc sấy khô. Khi dùng, để sống hoặc sao qua. Tuệ Tĩnh (Nam dược thần hiệu) đã dùng hạt đay quả dài thay vị đình lịch vì có tác dụng lợi tiểu mạnh chữa bệnh cổ trướng, phối hợp với các vị thuốc khác trong bài thuốc sau:

Hạt đay quả dài 12g, sao; vỏ rễ dâu 24g, tẩm mật sao; trần bì lâu năm 12g; gừng sống 3 lát. Tất cả thái nhỏ, sắc với 400ml nước còn 100ml, uống làm hai lần trong ngày.

Theo kinh nghiệm dân gian, hạt đay quả dài 12g, giã nát, sao; xơ mướp 20g, băm nhỏ, sao. Hai thứ trộn đều, sắc uống làm hai lần trong ngày, chữa hen suyễn. Để chữa tràn dịch màng phổi, lấy hạt đay quả dài 8g; ý dĩ 16g; tỳ giải, mộc thông, huyền sâm, thổ phục linh, bách bộ, mỗi vị 12g; hạt bìm bìm biếc, rễ cỏ tranh, hạt mã đề, mỗi vị 8g. Sắc uống ngày một thang.

Những năm gần đây, các nhà khoa học đã nghiên cứu tác dụng dược lý của chất olitorisid và thấy có hoạt tính trợ tim cao, làm tăng sức co cơ tim và giảm nhịp tim gần giống hoạt tính sinh học của strophantin (hoạt chất đặc hiệu với bệnh tim của cây sừng dê). Olitorisid đã được đưa vào một hỗn hợp ổn định có tác dụng trên tim và được đặt tên là Daicosid. Từ đó, thuốc được bào chế dưới dạng viên 1mg và thuốc tiêm 0,33mg dùng để trợ tim với hiệu quả điều trị cao.

Theo tài liệu nước ngoài, lá đay quả dài được dùng làm thuốc bổ, an thần, lợi tiểu. Hạt là thuốc tẩy chữa táo bón.

Tác giả: DS. Đỗ Huy Bích
Nguồn: Báo sức khỏe & Đời sống Online ngày 8/8/2007

_______________________________________________________

**** HORT PURDUE.EDU
www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Corchorus_olitori…

Corchorus olitorius L.
Tiliaceae
Nalta jute, Tussa jute
Source: James A. Due. 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops. unpublished

Uses

While perhaps better known as a fiber crop, jute is also a medicinal "vegetable", eaten from Tanganyika to Egypt. Dried leaves were given me by an Egyptian friend who had brought them with him to this country. They are used in soups under the Arabic name "Molukhyia." In India the leaves and tender shoots are eaten. The dried material is there known as "nalita." Injections of olitoriside markedly improve cardiac insufficiencies and have no cumulative attributes; hence, it can serve as a substitute for strophanthin.
Folk Medicine

Reported to be demulcent, deobstruent, diuretic, lactagogue, purgative, and tonic, tussa jute is a folk remedy for aches and pains, dysentery, enteritis, fever, dysentery, pectoral pains, and tumors (Duke and Wain, 1981; List and Horhammer, 1969-1979). Ayurvedics use the leaves for ascites, pain, piles, and tumors. Elsewhere the leaves are used for cystitis, dysuria, fever, and gonorrhea. The cold infusion is said to restore the appetite and strength.
Chemistry

Per 100 g, the leaves are reported to contain 43-58 calories, 80.4-84.1 g H2O, 4.5-5.6 g protein, 0.3 g fat, 7.6-12.4 g total carbohydrate, 1.7-2.0 g fiber, 2.4 g ash, 266-366 mg Ca, 97-122 mg P, 7.2-7.7 mg Fe, 12 mg Na, 444 mg K, 6,410-7,850 ug beta-carotene equivalent, 0.13-0.15 mg thiamine, 0.26- 0.53 mg riboflavin, 1.1-1.2 mg niacin, and 53-80 mg ascorbic acid. Leaves contain oxydase and chlorogenic acid. The folic acid content is substantially higher than that of other folacin-rich vegetables, ca 800 micrograins per 100 g (ca 75% moisture) or ca 3200 micrograms on a zero moisture basis (Chen and Saad, 1981). The seeds contain 11.3-14.8% oil (Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk, 1962), reportedly estrogenic (Sharaf et al, 1979), which contains 16.9% palmitic-, 3.7% stearic-, 1.8% behenic-, 1.1% lignoceiic-, 9.1% oleic-, 62.5% linoleic-, and 0.9% linolenic- acids as well as large portions of B, Mn, Mo, and Zn.
Toxicity

Contains HCN and several cardiac glycosides. Negm et al (1980) report the LD50 of tissue extracts to mice. The "lethal dose" of Corchoroside A to cats is 0.053-0.0768 mg/kg and Corchoroside B 0.059-0.1413, but some authors say that Corchoroside A is twice as active as Corchoroside B.
Description

Annual, much-branched herb 90-120 cm tall; stems glabrous. Leaves 6-10 cm long, 3.5-5 cm broad, elliptic-lanceolate, apically acute or acuminate, glabrous, serrate, the lower serratures on each side prolonged into a filiform appendage over 6 mm long, rounded at the base, 3-5 nerved; petioles 2-2.5 cm long, slightly pubescent, especially towards the apex; atipules subulate, 6-10 mm long. Flowers pale yellow; bracts lanceolate; peduncle shorter than the petiole; pedicles 1-3, very short. Sepals ca 3 mm long, oblong, apiculate. Petals 5 mm long, oblong spathulate. Style short; stigma microscopically papillose. Capsules 3-6.5 cm long, linear, cylindric erect, beaked, glabrous, 10-ribbed, 5-valved; valves with transverse partitions between the seeds. Seeds trigonous, black (Kirtikar and Basu, 1975).
Germplasm

Reported from the African, Hindustani, and China-Japan Centers of Diversity, tussa jute, or cvs thereof, is reported to tolerate disease, fungi, high pH, laterite, limestone, and salt (Duke, 1978). Several cvs are discussed in the Annual Reports of the Jute Agricultural Research Institute (ICAR, 1973, 1975). (2n = 14, 28)
Distribution

Rather pantropical in distribution, perhaps more often a weed than a cultivar. Considered a serious weed in Australia, Egypt, Mozambique, the Philippines, Senegal, and Thailand, a principal weed in the Sudan, and a common weed in Afghanistan, India, Kenya, Nepal, Turkey, and Zambia (Holm et al, 1979). Systematic attempts have been made to grow jute in West Africa, Sudan, Egypt, Turkey, Iran, Thailand, Java, Paraguay, Brazil, Argentina, and Mexico.
Ecology

Ranging from Warm Temperate Thorn through Tropical Desert to Wet Forest Life Zones, tussa jute is reported to tolerate annual precipitation of 4.0 to 42.9 dm (mean of 15 cases = 18), annual temperature of 16.8 to 27.5°C (mean of 15 cases = 23.8), and pH of 4.5 to 8.2 (mean of 13 cases = 6.5). (Duke, 1978, 1979)
Cultivation

In India, seeds are sown in (Feb.-) Mar-May (June) in carefully prepared soil, plowed and cross plowed 5 or 6 times, clay soils requiring more plowing. Cow dung and wood ashes are applied as manure. Rotted water hyacinth or its ashes may also be applied. Seeds are broadcast or dribbled behind the plow. When soils are moist, seeds may germinate in 2-3 days. If germination is bad, replowing and resowing is recommended. Starting at 8-25 cm tall, the seedlings are harrowed with a rake 3 to 4 times, and weeded 2 to 3 times. After the final weeding, plants are spaced at 10-15 by 15 cm. Highest yields were obtained (ca 3000 kg/ha) with 80 kg/N compared to 1700 per ha in unfertilized controls.
Harvesting

In India, usually harvested Aug-Sept, when ca 50% of the plants are in pods, but earlier if floods threaten. Plants are cut close to the ground with sickles. Cut plants are tied into bundles, left to dry 2-4 days and shed their leaves. The jute is retted usually in stagnant water. After retting, the bundles are beat on the root end with a mallet to start the fibers which are wrapped around the fingers and the stems are jerked back and forth in the water to separate the fibers.
Yields and Economics

Fiber yields run ca 800-1600 kg/ha with exceptional cases of 2400 in India, and genetic potential of 4000 kg/ha, the fiber representing ca 6% of the green weight. Intercropped with Vigna, jute has yielded 3270 kg compared to 2290 monocropped. Rice yielded 5650 kg/ha following the intercropping and, potatoes yielded 13,600 kg/ha following the rice (ICAR, 1973). Seed yields run 200-350 kg/ha, usually lower in C. olitorus than in capsularis.
Energy

Assuming the fiber yields are 6% of green weight, annual green weight productivity ranges from 13 to 42 MT/ha, with genetic potential of 67 MT. Assuming 80% moisture, this translates to 2.6-13.4 MT DM. ICAR (1973) reports DM yields of ca 10 MT near Barrackpore corresponding roughly to an uptake of 75 kg N, 4 5 kg P2O5, 120 kg K2O, 115 kg CaO, and 35 kg MgO.
Biotic Factors

Anthracnose spots caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides may infect 50-90% of a jute population, but spraying with copper oxychloride at 0.5% strength checked the spread, holding it to 5-10% (ICAR, 1973). Thangavel et al (1974) found that this species was badly infested by 3 species of weevils (Myllocerus spp.) while C. capsularis was unaffected. The semilooper Anomis sabulifera may stunt the growth, reducing fiber yields by ca 13-32%. The yellow mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus may also reduce yields.

**** SARAHMELAMED
www.sarahmelamed.com/2010/07/the-incredible-journey-of-co…

The Incredible Journey of Corchorus Olitorius
by SARAH on JULY 4, 2010
Deep in tropical Africa families ate a nutritious and filling stew from a plant known today as ewedu. Little would they know that this would be the last connection with their homeland before slave traders shipped them away as prized commodities. The slaves carried with them the tiny seeds of Corchorus Olitorius, a plant that sustained them for centuries and would continue to do so in their Diaspora. Along the human chattel lines this modest flower flourished, perhaps symbolizing how African societies could have thrived if they were left alone. The depredation of Africa continued across the continent as the slave trade broadened its ugly hold. Indigenous societies were being destroyed before they had a chance to fully develop and for many this plant was the last vestige of a culture which would all but disappear.
From the Jungles of Africa to Egypt’s National Dish

Mloukhia as it is known in Egypt has grown there for so long it has become a quintessential Egyptian green. What started as a plant introduced by slaves became the preferred food of the highest echelons of society and it is said even the Pharaoh himself. As the pendulum swings, in modern times it is again the simple food of peasant farmers and is considered by many Egypt’s national dish.

Interestingly, during the reign of the mad Fatimid Caliph, al-Hakim Bi-Amr Allah, Mloukhia became illegal along with a long list of other prohibitions. It was treated much like cocaine or marihuana and anyone caught with this contraband would be harshly punished. This is ironic considering how nutritious Mloukhia is, high in vitamin C and B, beta-carotene, magnesium and iron. It is also beneficial in controlling symptoms of diabetes and high cholesterol.

From Africa and Beyond

With trade, migration and exploration Mloukhia found its way across the globe and became an important agricultural product in India and adjacent countries. Unlike Egypt it was not grown as an edible plant but to produce burlap, a fabric made from jute fibers of C. Olitorius. It adapted incredibly well to the hot climate of Asia and became an important economic crop. Since the introduction of nylon and polypropylene, burlap lost a large share of the market. However, renewed interest in biodegradable fibers for such uses as erosion control has once again increased international sales of this product.

Mloukhia and the Western Palate

It is considered a much loved dish in many parts of the world including the Levant, Philippines and even Japan, where they use it for medicinal tea. Jews of Sephardic heritage are also very fond of mloukhia as the name Jew’s mallow indicates. In the United States, and other western nations, mlouhkia is unknown except within certain communities.

It’s mucilaginous texture, highly prized by some, is often disliked by those who have never encountered it before. It is described in terms that are not common in cookery books and better fitted to the medical lexicon.

Coming from the United States, I tasted Mloukhia for the first time several years ago and it did not disappoint. It was more viscous than I ever thought possible in a vegetable. Research has indicated that the plant component producing the texture may have uses as a food additive much the same way guar gum is used today.

Mloukhia is an important local crop in Africa, the Middle East and a few Asian countries and should not be replaced by introduced species. It continues to be grown or harvested in many areas of Africa where it is easily grown without the need for intensive agricultural intervention. Its high nutritional profile and ease of growth makes it an ideal plant to grow in its indigenous area or climates compatible to it. Sustainable agriculture is based on using local plants for preserving not only the ecology but the culture tied with it.

In addition, there are areas where this plant grows abundantly in the wild but neglected as an edible crop. In these cases, education may help to increase food sources with a minimum of effort and finance.

Mloukhia is an acquired taste which I have not yet achieved. The traditional way of preparing it is as a soup or cooked together with lamb. Here is another way inspired by Cafe Liz’s sweet potato and mloukhia ravioli. I used egg pasta consisting of 3 cups duram bread flour and 2 cups fine semolina flour. The filling consisted of a mixture of cooked mloukhia that had been squeezed dried of moisture mixed with feta and kashkaval cheese. I made a simple olive oil sauce with garlic, chili pepper and crushed coriander. The result did not mask the texture of the mloukhia. As I am extremely impatient with picky eaters who are reluctant to try new things, it annoys me to no end that I have not been able to overcome the mloukhia hurdle.

*** PFAF.ORG
www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Corchorus%20olitorius

ANNUAL/PERENNIAL growing to 3.5 m (11ft 6in) at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone 10. It is in flower from Aug to October, and the seeds ripen in October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils.The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. and can grow in very alkaline soils.
It cannot grow in the shade.It requires moist soil.

Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Leaves; Seed.

Leaves – raw or cooked[1, 27, 46, 61]. Young leaves are added to salads whilst older leaves are cooked as a pot-herb[2, 183, 269]. High in protein[183]. The dried leaves can be used as a thickener in soups[183]. A tea is made from the dried leaves[183]. Immature fruits are added to salads or used as a potherb[183].

Demulcent; Diuretic; Febrifuge; Tonic.

The leaves are demulcent, diuretic, febrifuge and tonic[240]. They are used in the treatment of chronic cystitis, gonorrhoea and dysuria[240]. A cold infusion is said to restore the appetite and strength[269]. The seeds are purgative[240]. Injections of olitoriside, an extract from the plant, markedly improve cardiac insufficiencies and have no cumulative attributes; hence, it can serve as a substitute for strophanthin[269].
Other Uses
Fibre; Wood.

A fibre is obtained from the stems, it is the main source of jute[46, 61, 200] but is considered to be inferior to the fibre obtained from C. capsularis[61]. The fibre is somewhat coarse and is used mainly for sackcloth etc[57]. The stems are harvested when the plant is in flower and are then retted (allowed to begin to rot) so that the fibre can be extracted[171]. This species tends to branch making fibre extraction more difficult[114]. Growing the plants very close together will prevent some of the branching. If used in making paper, the fibres are cooked for 2 hours with lye and then ball milled for 4½ hours. The paper is grey/buff[189]. Fibre yields run ca 800-1600 kg/ha with exceptional cases of 2400 in India, and genetic potential of 4000 kg/ha, the fibre representing ca 6% of the green weight[269]. Intercropped with Vigna, jute has yielded 3270 kg compared to 2290 monocropped[269]. The very light and soft wood is used in making sulphur matches[158].
Cultivation details
Prefers a very fertile soil and a hot humid climate[169]. Tolerates very wet conditions according to one report[57] whilst another says that it does not tolerate waterlogged soils[169]. Jute is reported to tolerate an annual precipitation between 40 and 429m,an annual average temperature range of 16.8 to 27.5°C and a pH in the range of 4.5 to 8.2[269]. Jute is sometimes cultivated for the fibre in its stem and also for its edible leaves[183]. It makes an excellent spinach substitute in areas with hot summers[183]. This species is not hardy in Britain but it can be grown as a half-hardy annual here, though it grows much better in areas that are warmer than typical summers in this country[27]. Some reports say that this plant is an annual whilst one says that it is perennial. Since the plant is not hardy in Britain we can only grow it as an annual. This species is very closely related to C. capsularis

Propagation
Seed – sow spring in a greenhouse. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in late spring, after the last expected frosts[200]. In areas with hot summers it should be possible to sow the seed in situ in mid spring.

**** PHILIPPINE MEDICINE PLANTS
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