Grave of Gustaph Busch – died July 1849 of cholera

A few nice Graves disease symptoms images I found:

Grave of Gustaph Busch – died July 1849 of cholera
Graves disease symptoms

Image by elycefeliz
www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=487

Beginning in the early 1830s, cholera epidemics killed thousands of United States citizens. People who contract cholera generally suffer from severe diarrhea, vomiting, and cramps. The disease is spread by drinking water or eating food that is contaminated with human feces. People with this illness can die from dehydration within a few hours after the symptoms first appear.

Asiatic Cholera appears to have started on the Indian subcontinent, ca. 1826. By 1831, it had spread to Russia. Cholera first appeared in the United States in 1832. European immigrants apparently brought the disease with them to America. With poor sanitation systems, cholera tended to be most virulent in cities. By the autumn of 1832, the illness had reached Cincinnati, probably brought by people traveling along the Ohio River. The Ohio and Mississippi Rivers allowed the disease to spread quickly across the United States in all directions.

One of the most common treatments for cholera in the United States up through the Civil War was the medicine calomel (Mercurous Chloride; Calogreen; Mercury Monochloride; Mercury Chloride). It was commonly used as a purgative (laxative) for the treatments of bowel illnesses ranging from diarrhea to cholera; unfortunately calomel’s effects were seriously harmful. It may have cleansed the bowels, but at the same time it caused teeth to loosen, hair to fall out and could destroy the patient’s gums and intestines. In other words, it could cause acute mercury poisoning.

The worst epidemic to affect Ohio occurred in 1849. Eight thousand people in Cincinnati died in this epidemic, including Harriet Beecher Stowe’s infant son. www.iath.virginia.edu/utc/interpret/exhibits/hedrick/hedr…
Harriet Beecher Stowe’s writing of Uncle Tom’s Cabin was precipitated by two events, one in her personal life: in 1849 her sixth child, Samuel Charles, died in the cholera epidemic. Cholera was a relatively new disease in the Western hemisphere and inspired dread partly for that reason and partly because it was so deadly. To people in the nineteenth century it was an act of God, a biblical plague. All Harriet could do was watch helplessly while her eighteen-month-old child was wracked by convulsions and lost all the fluids in his body. She later wrote that there were circumstances of such bitterness in the manner of Charley’s death that she didn’t think she could ever be reconciled for it unless his death allowed her to do some great good to others. She also wrote that losing Charley made her understand what a slave woman felt when her child was taken away at the auction block.

Many Cincinnati residents fled the city and ended up in Mt. Pleasant, a community that escaped the illness. The town residents soon changed its name to Mt. Healthy in honor of its good fortune.

It wasn’t until 1854, when Cholera struck England once again, that Dr. John Snow was able to legitimate his argument that cholera was spread through contaminated food or water. Snow, in investigating the epidemic, began plotting the location of deaths related to Cholera. At the time, London was supplied its water by two water companies. One of these companies pulled its water out of the Thames River upstream of the main city while the second pulled its water from the river downstream from the city. A higher concentration of Cholera was found in the region of town supplied by the water company that drew its water from the downstream location. Water from this source could have been contaminated by the city’s sewage. Furthermore, he found that in one particular location near the intersection of Cambridge and Broad Street, up to 500 deaths from Cholera occurred within 10 days.

Cholera epidemics continued in the United States until the early 1900s. As sanitation improved within the United States, including chlorination of water, the illness weakened. In modern nations, cholera cases are very rare. In under-developed countries, outbreaks remain common. In 1991, cholera struck both South America and Africa, killing thousands of people. The standard treatment for cholera today is to keep the ill person hydrated.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cholera

www.jstor.org/pss/3642236

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Snow_(physician)

www.online-literature.com/stowe/

Grave of Gustaph Adolph Busch – died July 1849 of cholera
Graves disease symptoms

Image by elycefeliz
www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=487

Beginning in the early 1830s, cholera epidemics killed thousands of United States citizens. People who contract cholera generally suffer from severe diarrhea, vomiting, and cramps. The disease is spread by drinking water or eating food that is contaminated with human feces. People with this illness can die from dehydration within a few hours after the symptoms first appear.

Asiatic Cholera appears to have started on the Indian subcontinent, ca. 1826. By 1831, it had spread to Russia. Cholera first appeared in the United States in 1832. European immigrants apparently brought the disease with them to America. With poor sanitation systems, cholera tended to be most virulent in cities. By the autumn of 1832, the illness had reached Cincinnati, probably brought by people traveling along the Ohio River. The Ohio and Mississippi Rivers allowed the disease to spread quickly across the United States in all directions.

One of the most common treatments for cholera in the United States up through the Civil War was the medicine calomel (Mercurous Chloride; Calogreen; Mercury Monochloride; Mercury Chloride). It was commonly used as a purgative (laxative) for the treatments of bowel illnesses ranging from diarrhea to cholera; unfortunately calomel’s effects were seriously harmful. It may have cleansed the bowels, but at the same time it caused teeth to loosen, hair to fall out and could destroy the patient’s gums and intestines. In other words, it could cause acute mercury poisoning.

The worst epidemic to affect Ohio occurred in 1849. Eight thousand people in Cincinnati died in this epidemic, including Harriet Beecher Stowe’s infant son. www.iath.virginia.edu/utc/interpret/exhibits/hedrick/hedr…
Harriet Beecher Stowe’s writing of Uncle Tom’s Cabin was precipitated by two events, one in her personal life: in 1849 her sixth child, Samuel Charles, died in the cholera epidemic. Cholera was a relatively new disease in the Western hemisphere and inspired dread partly for that reason and partly because it was so deadly. To people in the nineteenth century it was an act of God, a biblical plague. All Harriet could do was watch helplessly while her eighteen-month-old child was wracked by convulsions and lost all the fluids in his body. She later wrote that there were circumstances of such bitterness in the manner of Charley’s death that she didn’t think she could ever be reconciled for it unless his death allowed her to do some great good to others. She also wrote that losing Charley made her understand what a slave woman felt when her child was taken away at the auction block.

Many Cincinnati residents fled the city and ended up in Mt. Pleasant, a community that escaped the illness. The town residents soon changed its name to Mt. Healthy in honor of its good fortune.

It wasn’t until 1854, when Cholera struck England once again, that Dr. John Snow was able to legitimate his argument that cholera was spread through contaminated food or water. Snow, in investigating the epidemic, began plotting the location of deaths related to Cholera. At the time, London was supplied its water by two water companies. One of these companies pulled its water out of the Thames River upstream of the main city while the second pulled its water from the river downstream from the city. A higher concentration of Cholera was found in the region of town supplied by the water company that drew its water from the downstream location. Water from this source could have been contaminated by the city’s sewage. Furthermore, he found that in one particular location near the intersection of Cambridge and Broad Street, up to 500 deaths from Cholera occurred within 10 days.

Cholera epidemics continued in the United States until the early 1900s. As sanitation improved within the United States, including chlorination of water, the illness weakened. In modern nations, cholera cases are very rare. In under-developed countries, outbreaks remain common. In 1991, cholera struck both South America and Africa, killing thousands of people. The standard treatment for cholera today is to keep the ill person hydrated.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cholera

www.jstor.org/pss/3642236

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Snow_(physician)

www.online-literature.com/stowe/

Executions at Gloucester
Graves disease symptoms

Image by brizzle born and bred
Prior to 1792 executions had taken place at the nearby village of Over and the condemned were conveyed to the gallows in carts, sitting on their own coffins. After this date hangings were carried out using a “New Drop” style gallows erected on the roof of the prison gatehouse and continued on the new gatehouse roof when it was built in 1826.

Between 1792 and 1864, 102 prisoners were hanged in public, comprising 94 men and eight women. There were no executions at all between 1839, when William Davis was hanged on the 20th of April for the murder of John Butt and July 1864. The next and last public execution at Gloucester was carried out on the 27th of August 1864 when 55 year old Lewis Gough was to die for the murder of Mary Curtis.

A further 17 people (16 men and one woman) were hanged within the prison between 1872 and 1939.

The first private hanging took place on the 8th of January 1872 when 20 year old Frederick Jones was put to death by William Calcraft for the murder of his girlfriend, Emily Gardner, on a raised scaffold in the prison yard. (This was the same gallows as had previously been used on the roof). There were steps the prisoner had to climb to reach the four foot high platform.

For the triple hanging of Edward Butt, Mary Ann Barry and Edwin Bailey in 1874, Robert Anderson, the hangman, asked for a pit to be dug to allow the gallows platform to be level with the yard.

The first hangings at the prison took place on Saturday the 14th of April 1792 when Londoner, Charles Rachford and Irish born John Hughes were executed for highway robbery. The had robbed John Elliott in the parish of Westbury-upon-Trym on 24th November 1791, taking his watch with a silver case (valued at £3), a steel hook (valued at 2d), a steel watch chain (valued at 6d), a silver seal (valued at 1/-) and 10 copper halfpennies. They were also sentenced to death for the highway robbery of Thomas Probert in the same parish on 25th November 1791, robbing him of a clasp-knife (valued at 3d), a horse whip (valued at 2d) and three copper halfpennies.

On Saturday, the 13 of April 1793, John Evans became, at 70, the oldest man to be hanged at Gloucester. He had been convicted of breaking into the dwelling house of Sarah Jones in the parish of Newent on the 15th November 1792; and stealing 1 gold guinea and 9/- in money (£1.50 in decimal money).

1794 saw the first executions for murder at the prison. Hannah Limbrick, aged 26, was hanged on Friday the 22nd of August for the murder of Deborah Limbrick, by striking her on the head with a hatchet, in the parish of Westbury on 14th of February 1794, fracturing her jaw and giving her mortal wounds of which she died on 16th February. The following day 24 year old Hannah Webley suffered for the murder of her male bastard, whom it was alleged that she had killed by striking his head against a bed post, shortly after he was born in the parish of Berkeley on 2nd June 1794. She denied her guilt to the end.

During the period 1792 – 1799, there were a total of 21 executions, 19 men and the two women mentioned above. The men were executed for such crimes as sheep stealing, horse theft and burglary. Only one was to die for murder. This was on Monday the 18th of March 1799 when William Jewell was hanged for the murder of John Ayliffe whom he had severely assaulted in the parish of Eastington on the 1st of October 1799, causing his death two days later.

On the 23rd of March 1811, William Townley who had been convicted of burglary, was hanged a few minutes before a reprieve arrived for him. The sentencing judge had moved on to his next appointment at Hereford Assizes but had been told some favourable things about Townley and decided to reprieve him. However the letter was sent to Mr. Wilton, under-sheriff of Herefordshire, rather than the under-sheriff of Gloucestershire. When he received the letter and realised the gravity of the situation he sent a rider to Gloucester, some 34 miles away. By the time this man arrived Townley had been hanging for 20 minutes and it was too late to save him.

At 69 years old, Dinah Riddiford, is probably the oldest woman to have been hanged in England in the 19th or 20th centuries. She was executed for stealing bacon, butter, and other articles, alongside 22 year old John Williams on the 7th of September 1816. Theirs were the only executions carried out as a result of the August Assize at which 17 death sentences were passed. All the others had their death sentences commuted – generally to transportation overseas. Dinah’s son and co-defendant, Luke was one of the fortunate ones

16 year old John Baker, from Wotton under Edge, became the youngest male to be hanged, when he was executed alongside two other young men on September the 1st 1821. John Baker had been convicted of burglary and 20 year old John Badcock and 28 year old Joseph Ford had been convicted of horse theft.

The Lent Assizes of 1828 resulted in another teenager, 19 year old Joseph Ray, from Bristol being hanged on the 28th of April 1828 for burglary, alongside four other young men.

Charlotte Long, aged 33, of North Nibley became the last woman in England to suffer for arson when she was hanged on the 31st of August 1833, alongside her co-defendant, 27 year old Thomas Gaskins. Arson was a crime for which women frequently were executed at this time.

(The last person to be hanged for arson in England was Daniel Case, three years later to the day, at Ilchester in Somerset on the 31st of August 1836.)

21 year old Harriet Tarver of Chipping Campden was hanged on the 9th of April 1836 for the murder of her husband, Thomas, by poison. She was the youngest woman to be executed at Gloucester in the 19th century. It was claimed in a broadside, sold at her execution, that she was repentant and hoped that her “orphan child would take warning and shun vice and bad company”. These claims of repentance were very popular in broadsides and may well have been pure invention.

After 1868 the law required that executions be carried out inside the walls of the prison. However these early non-public executions were by no means private and some 40 people were present in the prison yard on the morning of Monday the 12th of January 1874 to witness the execution of two men and one woman. They were Charles Edward Butt, Mary Ann Barry and Edwin Bailey. Curiously both the victims had died on the same day, the 17th of August 1873.

Edward Butt, aged 22, had shot and killed 20 year old Amelia Selina Phipps out of jealousy because she would not have a long term relationship with him. They were near neighbours on adjoining farms at Arlingham. Amelia was friendly towards Edward, but simply did not want him. They had at least two violent quarrels and in the end he murdered her with a shotgun. He was duly arrested and charged with the crime. He was tried at Gloucester Assizes on Christmas Eve 1873 and the jury rejected his contention that the shooting had been an accident.

Mary Ann Barry (31) and Edwin Bailey (32) were jointly convicted of the murder by poisoning of 10 month old Sarah Jenkins. Sarah was born to seventeen-year-old Mary Susan Jenkins (known as Susan) on the 23rd of October 1872 and Edwin Bailey was alleged to be the father. He denied this and Susan was forced to obtain a court order for maintenance of Sarah, which he resented.
Mary Ann Barry was employed by Edwin Bailey to clean his shop but there may well have been more in the relationship than this. In the December of 1872, Ann started to visit SusanJenkins and seemed to take to the baby. She brought Sarah gifts and claimed that the ladies of the Dorcas Society (a Christian charity) had taken an interest in the child. She encouraged Susan to give Sarah Steedman’s Soothing Powders for teething. In August 1873 Susan Jenkins received a letter apparently from the Dorcas Society with three packets labelled “Steedman’s Soothing Powders”. On the 17th of August, Susan gave one of the powders to little Sarah who quickly went into convulsions and died. The remaining powders were analysed and found to be a rat poison containing strychnine.

Bailey and Barry were tried at Gloucester assizes the day before Butt (on the 23rd of December 1873). The paper of the letter purporting to come from the Dorcas Society was traced to Bailey and the handwriting matched his. Both were found guilty and condemned to death.

William Calcraft was not available for this hanging, so instead the job was offered to Robert Anderson (Evans) from Carmarthen in Wales. He suggested that the platform of the gallows be mounted over a pit to make it level with prison yard and this was done (see picture above). The platform was enclosed by a four foot high black calico screen. The hanging took place at 8.00 a.m., the normal hour, and when the prisoners had been pinioned in their cells they were led out in a procession, headed by the chaplain. Butt and Bailey were wearing suits and Mary Barry a long dress. She was placed between the men on the trap and they were allowed to kneel for prayers before their legs were tied and the white caps placed over their heads, followed by the nooses. Anderson withdrew the bolt and the trap doors opened causing them to drop below the level of the calico screen. The two men died almost without a struggle but Mary Ann Barry suffered longer, and Anderson had to press down upon her shoulders to quicken her death.

A black flag was hoisted over the prison in the normal way to show that the executions had been carried out and after the formal inquest their bodies were buried in unmarked graves in the execution yard. The chaplain revealed that both Bailey and Barry had confessed their guilt to him and Anderson said that Barry had whispered to him on the gallows that she had dreamt she would die like this. Mary Ann became the last woman to suffer hanging by the short drop method in Britain.

35 year old Edwin Smart became the next to be hanged for the murder of Lucy Derrick on the 2nd of April 1879. Smart was discovered sitting next to her body beside the road and was arrested after telling the person who found him that he had cut her throat. Smart was tried at Worcester and the only motive he could suggest for the murder was that he wanted to kill a woman, any woman! He denied that he even knew who his victim was. The hanging took place on Monday the 12th of May on the same gallows although the pit had been deepened to allow for the “long drop” pioneered by William Marwood. However Smart did not seem to die as easily as most of Marwood’s other victims, it took four minutes before his body became still. Examination afterwards revealed signs of suffocation.

James Berry carried out Gloucester’s next execution – that of Edward Hewitt on Tuesday the 15th of June 1886 for the murder of his wife Sarah.

Berry was to visit Gloucester twice more.

On the 17th of February 1887 he hanged 20 year old Edward Pritchard who had been convicted of the murder of 14 year old Henry Allen who he had robbed of his employers wages that Henry had been sent to the Stroud bank to collect.

Berry’s other execution at Gloucester was that of Enoch Wadley on Monday the 28th of November 1887. 27 year old Wadley had murdered Elizabeth Evans – a girl of 18 who did not accept his romantic overtures. He had stabbed the poor girl some 40 times. There was evidence of mental illness put forward at the first trial and the jury were unable to reach a verdict so a second trial took place where a new jury rejected the insanity argument and found Wadley guilty of the murder.

Nearly 12 years were to elapse before the next hanging which was of Albert Manning on Thursday the 16th of March 1893. 37 year old Manning had shot a Mrs. Flew, a lady he had originally lodged with and later formed a relationship with. The motive for the killing was thought to be jealousy over the disintegration of the relationship and her interest in another man.

The executioner was William Billington, assisted by Thomas Scott. These two also carried out the next execution here, that of 45 year old Frederick Wyndham on Thursday the 21st of December 1893. Wyndham had murdered his father, James a farmer.

The next hanging took place on Wednesday the 9th of March 1904, when 23 year old Sidney George Smith was hanged by William Billington for the murder of his girlfriend, 21 year old Alice Woodman at Cheltenham. It was a very sad case. Sidney loved Alice and wanted to marry her but due to money problems couldn’t. Sidney was deeply depressed by his financial troubles and at being given notice to leave their home. He resolved to kill Alice and then himself but did not succeed in his own suicide.

Gilbert Smith also cut a woman’s throat – this time his estranged wife’s Rosabella and was hanged by Thomas Pierrepoint and Albert Lumb on Tuesday the 26th of November 1912. This was to be the first hanging in the newly constructed execution suite at the end of “A” Wing.

One of the most famous cases to reach its conclusion on Gloucester’s gallows was that of 52 year old Herbert Rowse Armstrong who was hanged on Wednesday the 31st of May 1922. Armstrong was a solicitor at Hay on Wye in Herefordshire and was convicted of poisoning his wife Katherine (aged 47) with arsenic on the 22nd of February 1921 at their home and also of the attempted murder of a fellow solicitor, Oswald Martin, in 1921. Katherine’s body was found to have 3.5 grains of arsenic present and a box of chocolates Armstrong had sent to Oswald Martin contained 2.12 grains found. (2 grains being generally the lethal dose.)

Armstrong came to trial at Hereford Assizes before Mr. Justice Darling on the 3rd of April 1922. The trial lasted until the 13th and the prosecution was led by Ernest Pullock and the defense by the famous Edward Curtis Bennett. At the trial it was alleged that Armstrong had killed his wife for money, as a result of a new will, dated June 1920. It came out that he had bought a considerable amount of weedkiller on the 4th of August 1920 and that it was arsenic based. Katherine was affected by repeated bouts of stomach troubles from here on and also began to suffer from delusions for which she was treated at Barnwood House Mental Hospital over a four month period from August 1920. She came out of hospital in January 1921 and was again affected by the stomach cramps and vomiting (typical symptoms of arsenic poisoning). She died on the 22nd of February 1921 and was buried three weeks later with the cause of death being stated as “heart disease arising from nephritis and gastritis”. At this time there was no direct suspicion of murder and Armstrong went off on holiday for a month.

Oswald Martin ran the other firm of solicitors in Hay on Wye and was in a dispute with Armstrong over a conveyance for which Armstrong was holding a deposit.

Martin received an unexpected gift of a box of chocolates from Armstrong. These were eaten after a dinner party at the Martin’s house and his sister in law, Dorothy became violently ill as a result. Armstrong invited Martin to tea at his house to discuss finalisation of the property deal and offered him a scone. Martin too, became very ill as a result and his doctor decided to take a urine sample which together with a sample of Martin’s vomit, revealed traces of arsenic.

Armstrong was arrested at his office on the 20th of December and found to have a quantity of arsenic about his person. He was initially charged with the attempted murder of Oswald Martin. Katherine’s body was exhumed on the 2nd of January 1922 and found to contain arsenic too.

Accordingly, on the 9th of January, Armstrong was charged with her murder. Armstrong appealed his conviction without success and was duly hanged at Gloucester at 8.00 a.m. on the morning of Wednesday the 31st of May 1922 by John Ellis, assisted by Edward Taylor. He did not confess to his priest or his visitors. Armstrong was a small man of only 115 lbs. in weight so Ellis gave him a drop of 8’ 8”. At the last moment he spoke on the gallows “I am coming Kate” and with that Ellis pulled the lever.

23 year old Herbert Burrows was a probationary constable serving at Worcester and was condemned for the murders of Ernest Laight, his wife, Doris and their son Robert at the pub that Ernest ran, the Garibaldi Inn in Wylds Lane, Worcester. Burrows lived opposite the Garibaldi and had stayed on after closing time on the night of Friday the 27th of November 1925. After the other drinkers had departed he shot Mr. Laight and then his wife, when she came to investigate.

He apparently battered Robert to death because he was afraid that his crying might be heard.

He then took the takings from the till. Burrows asked a fellow officer the following day if he had heard about the shooting at the Garibaldi. However at the particular time he asked the question the police did not know that the Laights had been shot. Fellow officers went to Burrows’ lodgings where they found both the gun and the stolen money. Faced with this Burrows confessed.

He came to trial at Worcester on the 27th of January 1926 and was quickly convicted. He was hanged on Wednesday the 17th of February by Thomas Pierrepoint, assisted by Robert Baxter.

There was to be a second execution in 1926, that of 45 year old Charles Houghton on Friday the 3rd of December. Houghton had been convicted of the murders of two elderly sisters, Eleanor and Martha Drinkwater, for whom he worked as a butler. They had given him notice after 22 years working for them due to his drinking problem. He shot them both on the 7th of September 1926. Thomas Pierrepoint was again the hangman, assisted by Robert Wilson.

Yet another shooting led to the next hanging – that of Arthur Franklin for the murder of Bessie Gladys Nott and the attempted murder of her husband Henry on the 8th of May 1935.

The Franklins and Notts were neighbours and Arthur and Bessie had been having an affair, the break-up of which that led to the killing. Franklin was arrested at the scene and pleaded guilty at his trial on the 5th of June 1935. He was hanged by Thomas Pierrepoint, assisted by Robert Wilson on Tuesday the 25th of June 1935.

The last hanging at Gloucester was carried out on Wednesday the 7th of June when 41 year old Ralph Smith was executed for the murder of Beatrice Baxter, his ex-girlfriend. He and Beatrice quarrelled over his attitude to her seeing other men and the police had been called on at least one previous occasion. He left her house after one such quarrel, but decided to try and get back with her. She told him that she was going out to meet another man at a dance and this caused him to snap and cut her throat. He gave himself up later in the day and was told that Beatrice had died from her wound and that he was charged with murder. He was tried at the Old Bailey in London on the 3rd of May 1939 and found guilty. He was then returned to Gloucester to await his appointment with Thomas and Albert Pierrepoint on Wednesday the 7th of June 1939.

information source www.capitalpunishmentuk.org/gloucester.html

18 Kommentare zu “Grave of Gustaph Busch – died July 1849 of cholera

  1. elycefeliz Autor des Beitrags

    The willow is what intially attracted my attention – quite detailed, and has held up well through more than 150 winters -

  2. Dave Worrell Autor des Beitrags

    Nice! I enjoy the sense of continuity from old tombstones, but it’s a dying art – what will our decedents know us by? Our Flickr photostreams? Somehow I doubt they’ll be like this memorial in a century and a half …

  3. GraveWalker Autor des Beitrags

    That looks like Medina Sandstone, not known for its durability. Amazing detail! Beautiful Willow.

  4. brizzle born and bred Autor des Beitrags

    Ely Hatton Murderer, executed at Gloucester, August, 1732

    IN the account given of the case of this man, which has not been republished, or commented upon, since the time of his conviction, we find no interested cause for perpetrating the horrid crime.

    Ely Hatton was indicted at the assizes held at Gloucester, in August, 1732,for the wilful murder of Thomas Turberville, a carpenter. It was given in evidence, that on the 29th of April preceding, the deceased was found in his work-shop, with his brains dashed out, and his scull chopped in pieces with a broad axe, which lay near his body, covered with blood. Suspicion falling upon Hatton, he was apprehended, having made no effort to evade justice. The proof against him was little more than circumstantial. It appeared, in., evidence, that when the prisoner, was apprehended, he wore a shirt and pair of stockings, the property of the deceased; his coat was stained with blood, and many other circumstances were adduced, which left no doubts in the minds of the jury. The accused acknowledged that he had been in company with the deceased, on the evening of his death, that he went with him to a certain eminence near the town, to view some deer, and there they parted, that the shirt he had on, when apprehended, was his brother’s; but this was a falsehood, and alone sufficient to fix guilt upon him. He called one witness in his behalf, who served only to tend to his conviction; for this witness declared, that he verily believed him guilty of the murder, The prisoner’s defence also varied from account on his examination before a justice of peace, when he declared that the shirt in question belonged to his father.

    As no farther light was thrown upon the circumstances attending the murder of Turberville, it may be fairly presumed, notwithstanding the proof was not positive, that Hatton justly underwent the sentence of the law.

    The editor, however, recollects a story, but he cannot state the names of the parties, where an innocent man suffered in France, on a charge of murder, and which will, at all events, caution jurymen, when sitting on the life or death of a fellow-creature, to be extremely guarded in giving their verdict of guilty upon circumstantial evidence alone. A gentleman was found murdered in his own house, and by his own sword. Some persons, coming to the house just after the barbarous deed had been committed, were shocked at seeing his servant man, in great consternation running out, with a bloody sword in his hand. So great was his agitation, that he gave an incoherent account of the transaction, and was secured. A surgeon was sent for, who found the master dead, and comparing the wound with the sword, declared that the weapon, or one exactly similar, caused his death. This, with the proof that there had been quarrels between the deceased and the prisoner, was the evidence given on the trial; and he was found guilty, and executed. Some years afterwards, a late neighbour of the murdered man lay on his death-bed, and when his confessor came to administer, what Catholics calls, the extreme unction,* he confessed that having had a dispute with him, he entered his house privately, and in revenge, killed him, as already has been described.

    (*Note: This ceremony of the Catholic faith is thus performed. A priest, when summoned for that purpose, forms a procession, consisting of an oblong canopy of cloth, borne by four of the inferior clergy, under which he walks preceded by a boy bare-headed, tinkling a little bell; at the sound of which passengers prepare to pay it due respect. They kneel down as it passes them, cross their foreheads, and touch their breasts, repeating a prayer, Arrived at the dying person’s abode, the priest receives their confessions, and then, for a small gratuity, absolves them of their sins, and declares, that their souls will be received in heaven. A happy religion, for those who can have faith in such superstition!!)

  5. brizzle born and bred Autor des Beitrags

    Maccartney Hanged at Gloucester Jail in April, 1714, for the Murder of one Mr Beachere

    Maccartney being left to the wide world, and knowing not what course to take for a livelihood, being no scholar, nor brought up to any trade, turned thief at once, being so light-fingered that anything was his own which lay within his reach. He was a notable house- breaker, and had done many exploits that way; but his greatest was in breaking open the house of Sir Thomas Rochford, Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer, in the kingdom of Ireland, whom he and his comrades bound, with his lady, back to back, like a spread eagle, and all the men and women servants in the house after the same manner, without either shirt or smock upon them; then breaking open all trunks, cabinets, escritoires and chests of drawers, they took what plate and money they could find, to the value of fourteen hundred pounds.

    After committing this notorious robbery, his country being too hot to hold him, he fled into Scotland, where, breaking open a stable belonging to Sir James Steward, then her Majesty’s advocate for that kingdom, and stealing thence a horse and saddle, he came into England and turned highwayman. Being pretty lucky in his roguery, he always maintained himself in clothes; so that the handsome appearance which he made in his habit, with his fawning, cringing and flattering way, had brought him to be acquainted with several creditable gentlemen, to whom he pretended he had a very good estate in Ireland.

    One day Maccartney, with another rogue as good as himself, meeting in the Strand one Mr Vaughan, a Welsh gentleman, having about four hundred pounds per annum in Pembrokeshire, invited him to drink a pint of wine; and, going together to a tavern, whilst they were regaling themselves over a glass of claret, quoth Maccartney to his comrade: "I vow this is a fine day; we’ll e’en ride both of us out this afternoon."

    Said Mr Vaughan (not in the least mistrusting they were highwaymen): "If I had a horse I would ride out with you too, gentlemen."

    Quoth Maccartney: "I’ll help you to a horse, sir." And being as good as his word, they all three rode towards Romford, beyond which place, about a mile, meeting a coach full of passengers, Maccartney and his comrade set upon it.

    Whilst they were robbing them, quoth the Welsh gentleman to himself: "I’ll not stand idle; I’ll e’en be doing something too." So perceiving another coach at a little distance behind that which the others had attacked, and in which was only one gentleman, with his footman behind, he made up to it, and commanding the coachman to stop, he robbed the gentleman of five guineas in gold and forty shillings in silver, and rode off.

    Shortly after, going to Bristol, one Mr Beachere of Wiltshire also went down to that city in order to go to Ireland, where he unhappily fell into company with Maccartney, who was likewise going to that kingdom. In the morning, after their short acquaintance overnight, Maccartney calling up the aforesaid Beachere to go down to the Pill to embark, when he was on Durham Down, a mile without the city, this Irish rogue knocked him down and with a razor cut his throat from ear to ear, and then passed over into Wales, and designed for Holyhead.

    But messengers being sent into Wales to inquire at all the ports, heard of, pursued and took him in Brecknockshire, with Beachere’s clothes and bloody shirt. He was then committed to Gloucester Jail; and being convicted for this murder and robbery, he was there executed, on Wednesday, 7th of April, 1714, aged twenty-three years, and was afterwards hanged in chains on Durham Down.

  6. brizzle born and bred Autor des Beitrags

    Martha Tracy Executed for a Street Robbery

    THE melancholy fate of this unfortunate woman is another instance of the misery occasioned by that licentiousness, which is of all vices the most destructive of the happiness of females, and so disgraceful to the British metropolis.

    This much injured woman was a native of Bristol, and descended from poor parents, who educated her in the best manner in their power. Getting a place in the service of a merchant when she was sixteen years of age, she lived with him three years, and then came to London.

    Having procured a place in a house where lodgings were let to single gentlemen, and being a girl of an elegant appearance, and fond of dress, she was liable to a variety of temptations.

    Her vanity being even more than equal to her beauty, she at length conceived that she had made a conquest of one of the gentlemen-lodgers, and was foolish enough to think he would marry her.

    With a view of keeping alive the passion she thought she had inspired, she sought every pretence of going into his chamber; and he, having some designs against her virtue, purchased her some new clothes, in which she went to church on the following Sunday, where she was observed by her mistress.

    On their return from church, the mistress strictly inquired how she came to be possessed of such fine clothes; and, having learnt the real state of the case, she was discharged from her service on the Monday morning.

    As she still thought the gentleman intended marriage, she wrote to him, desiring he would meet her at a public-house; and, on his attending, she wept incessantly, and complained of the treatment she had met with from her mistress, which she attributed to the presents she had received from him.

    The seducer advised her to calm her spirits, and go into lodgings, which he would immediately provide for her, and here he could securely visit her till the marriage should take place.

    Deluded by this artifice, she went that day to lodge at a house in the Strand, which he said was kept by a lady who was related to him. In this place he visited her on the following, and several successive days; attending her to public places, and making her presents of elegant clothes, which effectually flattered her vanity, and lulled asleep the small remains of her virtue.

    It is needless to say that her ruin followed. After a connexion of a few months, she found him less frequent in his visits; and, informing him that she was with child, demanded that he would make good his promise of marriage: on which he declared that he had never intended to marry her, and that he would not maintain her any longer; and hinted that she should seek another lodging.

    On the following day the mistress of the house told her she must not remain there any longer, unless she would pay for her lodgings in advance, which being unable to do, or, perhaps, unwilling to remain in a house where she had been so unworthily treated, she packed up her effects, and removed to another lodging.

    When she was brought to bed, the father took away the infant, and left the wretched mother in a very distressed situation. Having subsisted for some time by pawning her clothes, she was at length so reduced as to listen to the advice of a woman of the town, who persuaded her to procure a subsistence by the casual wages of prostitution.

    Having embarked in the horrid course of life, she soon became a common street-walker, and experienced all those calamities incident to so deplorable a situation. Being sometimes tempted to pick pockets for a subsistence, she became an occasional visitor at Bridewell, where her mind grew only the more corrupt by the conversation of the abandoned wretches confined in that place.

    We now come to speak of the fact, the commission of which forfeited her life to the violated laws of her country.

    At the sessions held at the Old Bailey, in the month of January, 1745, she was indicted for robbing William Humphreys of a guinea on the king’s highway.

    The fact was, that being passing, at midnight, near Northumberland House, in the Strand, she accosted Mr Humphreys, who declining to hold any correspondence with her, two fellows with whom she was connected came up, and one of them knocking him down, they both ran away; when she robbed him of a guinea, which she concealed in her mouth; but Mr Humphreys seizing her, and two persons coming up, she was conducted to the watch-house, where the guinea was found in her mouth, as above mentioned, by the constable of the night.

    At her trial it was proved that she had called the men, one of whom knocked down the prosecutor; so that there could be no doubt of her being an accomplice with them; whereupon the jury brought her in guilty.

    After conviction she appeared to have a proper idea of her former guilt, and the horrors of her present situation. In fact she was a sincere penitent, and lamented that pride of heart which had first seduced her to destruction.

    Martha Tracy was hanged at Tyburn, on the 16th of February, 1745, behaving with the greatest decency and propriety to the last moment of her life.

    The fate of this woman affords a striking lesson to girls against the taking pride in those personal charms which, the more brilliant they are, will be only the more likely to lead them to destruction. The idea she had formed of making a conquest of a man in a rank of life superior to her own served only to assist towards her ruin; but we cannot help thinking that he who could be base enough to seduce her under solemn promises of marriage was still more guilty than herself, and in some degree an accessory to all the crimes she afterwards committed.

    It seems strangely unnatural that the father should take away the child, and leave the mother to perish, or to subsist only in a most infamous manner, for which she had been qualified by the gratification of his passions!

    In the gay hours of festivity men may triumph in the advantages they have gained over women in their unguarded moments; but surely reflection must come, with all her attendant train of horrors. Conscience will assert her rights; and the misery the wicked seducer suffers in this life he ought to consider only as a prelude to the more aggravated torments he has to expect in the next.

    If any one of the readers of this narrative has been guilty of the enormous crime we are now reprobating, it will become him to think seriously of the great work of reformation; and to repent, in the most unfeigned manner, while Providence yet permits him the opportunity of repentance. It ought to be remembered by offenders of every class, that the God of mercy is also a God of justice.

  7. brizzle born and bred Autor des Beitrags

    Nicholas Mooney and John Jones Executed at Bristol, May 24, 1752, for highway robbery.

    THERE was somewhat of a noble mind in the character of Mooney, though he suffered for an ignoble action. Many of the unfortunate men whose career we trace to an untimely end, have possessed hearts worthy of a better fate. Juvenile indiscretions have paved the way to enormities; and to support an ill-acquired habit, they have been driven to commit crimes, at which their minds have revolted. Melancholy, indeed, are our pictures of such men; and, if our drawings could but save one single youth from wandering into the road to ruin, our labours would be gratified in mental retrospection.

    The exposition of crimes and punishments goes to this end, and the editors sincerely, hope, that their comments will strike abhorrence in each reader against the violation of the laws, both of God and man.

    Nicholas Mooney and John Jones were condemned at Bristol, for a highway robbery. When brought to the bar, to receive sentence of death, Moony, who during the trial had pleaded for his fellow culprit Jones, thus addressed the Judge;

    "My Lord,

    "Permit me, again, to entreat for John Jones, whom I have inveigled and drawn into this trouble (as I have done many others before) that your Lordship will be pleased to spare his life.

    "As to my own part; I have committed many robberies and have been a rebel against my king, and have wronged my country, by coining money for which I can never make the public restitution, and therefore I am content to die, as I deserve.

    "I pray God to bless every one to whom I have done any wrong, and if there be any gentlemen of Bristol here, whom I have injured, I heartily ask their forgiveness, and more especially Mr. Washborough, (who stood near to the penitent culprit,) whom I attempted to murder, but God saved his life, for which I can never praise him enough."

    "My Lord,

    "I desire only three Sundays, and after that time has elapsed, I am willing to launch into eternity, and I hope, when I come to the place of execution, that God will open my mouth to warn all against my wicked course of life. I pray God to bless your Lordship, and this honourable Court, and may the Lord Jesus receive my soul!"

    On the 24th of May (three Sundays having passed since sentence was pronounced) Nicholas Mooney, John Jones, and William Cudmore, for returning from transportation before the time of his sentence had elapsed, were brought out of prison for execution.

    When arrived at the fatal tree, Mooney, in a pathetic manner, warned the surrounding multitude against deviating from the paths of rectitude, and warned them by his untimely fate.

    He left a letter to a gentleman who had been kind to him, in the following words

    Sir,

    "Before I die, I take this opportunity of acknowledging your kindness to me in times past. Oh ! that I had deserved it; for then I had not brought myself into these circumstances. But God is wise, and seeing that; I do not hear his voice, and turn from my wicked life, he gave me up to my own heart’s lust, and permitted me to fill up the measure of my iniquity, that in me at last should be shewn the severity of his justice.

    "You took me, the most abandoned wretch, for an honest man; and, as such, you kindly and generously recommended me where I might have done well — it is my own fault I did not. On Friday I am to meet the fate my crimes too justly deserve. I merit not only death, but hell; to the former man has doomed me; from the latter, Christ, I hope, will save me. Oh ! the riches of his mercy in Jesus Christ, who has made, my prison as a palace, my chains as ornaments, and I am quite happy.. I hope every one will pray for me, that my faith fail not. I am longing for death, and in firm expectation of a glorious resurrection to eternal life.

    "Your most obliged and dying servant,

    "’N. MOONEY."

    When his irons were taken off, he smiling, said, "Death has no sting for me," and when released from this incumbrance, he ejaculated, "I have got rid of the chain of my sins;" and he appeared cheerful. When the executioner put the rope about his neck, he said, "Welcome halter, I am saved as the thief upon the cross;" coming to the fatal tree, his expression was, "Welcome gallows, for I have deserved thee many years."

    The executioner was about to tie up Jones; but, with much earnestness, Mooney exclaimed, "Tie me up first, for I am the greatest sinner;" and then said, "As the breath leaves my body, from my sincere repentance, I am confident I shall go to heaven." So saying, and we trust his words were verified, with the two, other unfortunate men, he yielded up his life; all of them hoping forgiveness in that to come.

    "Parent of nature! Master of the world
    Where’er thy Providence directs, behold
    My steps with cheerful resignation turn,
    Fate leads the willing, drags the backward on.
    Why should I grieve, when grieving I must bear?
    Or take with guilt, what guiltless I might share?"

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